1 CODE 8603 B.ED AUTUMN 2016

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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016

Aiou solved assignment 1 code 8603 for the semester autumn 2016, this is first aiou solved assignment 1 code 8603 for B.Ed. students of Open University. This code 8603 subject name is curriculum development which is offered to B.Ed. students under new scheme of one and half year.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603

 

Q.4 EXPLAIN THE ESSENTIALS OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT. IDENTIFY DIFFERENT ELEMENTS OF CURRICULUM. (20)
ANSWER:-
A conceptual framework provides boundaries within which facts, concepts, theories, and propositions from three theoretical sources interact with clarity, coherence, and consistency. From the framework objectives are derived. The framework gives direction to the curriculum design. Finally, the conceptual framework serves as a background against which objectives can be tested. A conceptual framework for curriculum encourages systematic curriculum evaluation that will eventually allow us to more accurately describe, explain, predict, and control the work of curriculum.

AUTUMN 2016 AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603

Curriculum plays an important role in an educational system. It is somehow a blueprint which leads the teacher and the learner to reach the desired objectives. As a result, authorities have to design it in such a way that it could lead the teacher and the learner meet the desired learning outcomes. The four components of the curriculum are:-
1. Curriculum Aims, Goals and Objectives
2. Curriculum Content or Subject Matter
3. Curriculum Experience

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4. Curriculum Evaluation
These four components of the curriculum are essential. These are interrelated to each other. Each of these has a connection to one another.

Aims, goals, and objectives can be simplified as “what is to be done”, the subject matter/content: what subject matter is to be included, the learning experience” what instructional strategies, resources and activities will be employed, and the evaluation approaches, while curriculum evaluation is” what methods and instruments will be used to assess the results of the curriculum.

The curriculum aims, goals and objectives spell out what is to be done. It tries to capture what goals are to be achieved, the vision, the philosophy, the mission statement and objectives. Further, it clearly defines the purpose and what the curriculum is to be acted upon and try what to drive at. In the same manner, curriculum has a content. In here, it contains information to be learned in school. It is an element or a medium through which the objectives are accomplished.

A primordial concern of formal education is primarily to transmit organized knowledge in distilled form to a new generation of young learners.

The traditional sources of what is taught and learned in school is precisely the foundation of knowledge, therefore, the sciences and humanities provide the basis of selecting the content of school learning. In organizing the learning contents, balance, articulation, sequence, integration, and continuity form a sound content.

For the third component, the curriculum experience, instructional strategies and methods are the core of the curriculum. These instructional strategies and methods will put into action the goals and use of the content in order to produce an outcome. These would convert the written curriculum to instruction. Moreover, mastery is the function of the teacher direction and student activity with the teacher supervision.

For the fourth component, the curriculum evaluation is an element of an effective curriculum. It identifies the quality, effectiveness of the program, process and product of the curriculum. In summary, the components of a curriculum are distinct but interrelated to each other. These four components should be always present in a curriculum. I could say that these are essential ingredients to have an effective curriculum.
For example, in a curriculum, evaluation is also important so one could assess whether the objectives and aims have been meet or if not, he could employ another strategy which will really work out. Curriculum experience could not be effective if the content is not clearly defined. The aims, goals and directions serve as the anchor of the learning journey, the content or subject matter serve as the meat of the educational journey, curriculum experience serves as the hands —on exposure to the real spectrum of learning and finally the curriculum evaluation serves as the barometer as to how far had the learners understood on the educational journey.

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Q.5 DEFINE THE CONCEPTS OF AIMS, GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF CURRICULUM. EVALUATE DIFFERENT MODELS OF OBJECTIVES. IDENTIFY THE SUITABLE MODEL FOR PAKISTAN AND WHY. (20)
ANSWER:
AIMS:-
Aims are general statements that provide direction or intent to educational action. Aims are usually written in amorphous terms using words like: learn, know, understand, appreciate, and these are not directly measurable. Aims may serve as organizing principles of educational direction for more than one grade. Indeed these organizing principles may encompass the continuum of educational direction for entire programs, subject areas or the district.

Example: Students will understand and become proficient at identifying the different types of spoken English.

GOALS OF CURRICULUM FOR QUESTION OF AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016

GOALS:-
Goals are statements of educational intention which are more specific than aims. Goals too may encompass an entire program, subject area, or multiple grade levels. They may be in either amorphous language or in more specific behavioral terms.
Example: Students will be able to identify and use American slang terms and phrases.(This example is a subset of the aim above, but the area becomes more specific. This goal moves from generic spoken English to the more detailed area of American slang. One verb used is still “identify,” although this goal does not specify how students are to identify, and the verb “use” has been added. The objectives related to this goal should specify how the students will identify and use new knowledge.)

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016

OBJECTIVES:- Objectives are usually specific statements of educational intention which delineate either general or specific outcomes. There are advantages and disadvantages to different types of objectives. • Behavioral objectives • Holistic objectives • No behavioral objectives Problem solving objectives • Expressive activities that lead to expressive outcomes. All of the above are legitimate ways to write curriculum and lesson plans. However, currently, most objectives are written in behavioral terms. Behavioral objectives usually employ observable verbiage and can be divided into specific domains — cognitive (head), affective (heart), and physical (hand) Example: Objectives can be written in a number of ways. Currently, most objectives are written in behavioral terms. Behavioral objectives usually employ observable verbiage and can be divided into specific domains — cognitive (head), effective (heart), and physical (hand). Samples: • Cognitive: Students will identify and list 5 slang terms they have heard from their peers. • Effective: Student will choose 3 of the most offensive slang terms from a list developed by the entire class. • Physical: Students will create expressive gestures to go with their favorite slang terms.

SUITABLE MODEL FOR PAKISTAN FOR AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2016

SUITABLE MODEL FOR PAKISTAN AND WHY?
The concept of a curriculum has always been a point of great concern among educationist since the late 18th century. Many models of curriculum development have been reported in literature. For example, Classic Model, also known as Prescriptive Model (Tyler, 1949), considers curriculum development as a linear and logical activity mainly focusing on four aspects: (i) Educational purposes: a desired goals/objectives, (ii) Educational experiences: instructions & contents which act as a means of attaining these goals/ objectives, (iii) Structure of the curriculum which provides the organization of learning experiences, and (iv) Assessment and evaluation: the processes of determining learning outcomes.

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Tyler (1949) work shows an inclination toward Skinner’s behaviorism (1957) and John Dewey’s progressive education (1963) as he says, “Since the real purpose of education is not to have the instructor perform certain activities but to bring about significant changes in the students’ pattern of behavior, it becomes important to recognize that any statements of objectives of the school should be a statement of changes to take place in the students”. (Tyler 1949: 44). His model is also labeled as “Product Model” as some researchers considered his thoughts were heavily influenced by ‘scientific management’ which is also associated with his name.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016

Hilda Taba (1962) presented a model, also known as “interactive model” or “Instructional Strategies Model”, which mainly focuses on the planning of instructional strategies and considers it the basis of the curriculum design. Her model includes five mutually interactive elements of teaching and learning system: (i) objectives, (ii) contents, (iii) learning experiences, (iv) teaching strategies, and (v) evaluative measures. Some of the innovative aspects of Taba’s model include determining required objectives and related content, selection and organization of learning experiences in accordance with specified criteria; selection of a variety of teaching strategies and evaluation procedures and measures. Her model gives due consideration to external factors that may affect various components of a curriculum including the vicinity and community of school’s location, the school district’s educational policies, the goals, resources, and administrative strategies of the school, teachers’ personal style and characteristics, the nature of the student population.

CODE 8603 AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2016

Wheeler (1967) has presented a cyclical model which has many similarities with linear and interactive models. The key elements of this model includes initial situation analysis, identification of aims and objectives, contents selection and organization, selection and organization of learning activities, and the assessment / evaluation process.

SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 AUTUMN 2016

Walker (1971) presented a descriptive model, referred to as naturalistic by some scholars and also known as “process model”. His model includes three important elements: (i) platform that provides the beliefs or principles to guide the curriculum developers (ii) deliberation which is the process of making decisions from available alternatives, and (iii) design that is the organization and structure of the curriculum. Lawrence Stenhouse (1975) another advocator of process model defines: ‘A curriculum is an attempt to communicate the essential principles and features of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to critical scrutiny and capable of effective translation into practice’. He suggests that a curriculum is rather like a recipe in cookery. He says, “A curriculum, like the recipe for a dish, is first imagined as a possibility, then the subject of experiment. The recipe offered publicly is in a sense a report on the experiment. Similarly, a curriculum should be grounded in practice. It is an attempt to describe the work observed in classrooms that it is adequately communicated to teachers and others. Finally, within limits, a recipe can be varied according to taste. So can a curriculum.” (Stenhouse 1975: 4-5). At this point he shifted from a conventional process model as he does not consider the curriculum itself as a process rather a mean through which the constructed theory is converted into teaching-learning practices.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8603 FOR QUESTION # 1 TO 3 CLICK HERE

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