AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017

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AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Q NO. 4: COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE VARIOUS MODELS OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT. SUGGEST A SUITABLE MODEL FOR PAKISTAN AND GIVE THE REASON FOR ITS SELECTION.
Answer:-
DEFINITION OF CURRICULUM:-
An undergraduate curriculum is a formal academic plan for the learning experiences of students in pursuit of a college degree. The term curriculum, broadly defined, includes goals for student learning (skills, knowledge and attitudes); content (the subject matter in which learning experiences are embedded); sequence (the order in which concepts are presented); learners; instructional methods and activities; instructional resources (materials and settings); evaluation (methods used to assess student learning as a result of these experiences); and adjustments to teaching and learning processes, based on experience and evaluation. Although the term curriculum is variably used, this definition is sufficiently inclusive and dynamic to account for the many innovations in the undergraduate curriculum that involve instructional methods, sequencing, and assessments as well as instructional goals and content, all of which have been implemented in order to improve learning.

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MODELS.
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MODELS:-
The concept of a curriculum has always been a point of great concern among educationist since the late 18th century. Many models of curriculum development have been reported in literature. For example, Classic Model, also known as Prescriptive Model (Tyler, 1949), considers curriculum development as a linear and logical activity mainly focusing on four aspects: (i) Educational purposes: a desired goals/objectives, (ii) Educational experiences: instructions & contents which act as a means of attaining these goals/ objectives, (iii) Structure of the curriculum which provides the organization of learning experiences, and (iv) Assessment and evaluation: the processes of determining learning outcomes.

Tyler (1949) work shows an inclination toward Skinner’s behaviorism (1957) and John Dewey’s progressive education (1963) as he says, “Since the real purpose of education is not to have the instructor perform certain activities but to bring about significant changes in the students’ pattern of behavior, it becomes important to recognize that any statements of objectives of the school should be a statement of changes to take place in the students”. (Tyler 1949: 44). His model is also labeled as “Product Model” as some researchers considered his thoughts were heavily influenced by ‘scientific management’ which is also associated with his name. Hilda Taba (1962) presented a model, also known as “interactive model” or “Instructional Strategies Model”, which mainly focuses on the planning of instructional strategies and considers it the basis of the curriculum design. Her model includes five mutually interactive elements of teaching and learning system (i) objectives, iii) contents, (iii) learning experiences, (iv) teaching strategies, and (v) evaluative measures. Some of the innovative aspects of Taba’s model include determining required objectives and related content, selection and organization of learning experiences in accordance with specified criteria; selection of a variety of teaching strategies and evaluation procedures and measures. Her model gives due consideration to external factors that may affect various components of a curriculum including the vicinity and community of school’s location, the school district’s educational policies, the goals, resources, and administrative strategies of the school, teachers’ personal style and characteristics, the nature of the student population. Wheeler (1967) has presented a cyclical model which has many similarities with linear and interactive models. The key elements of this model includes initial situation analysis, identification of alms and objectives, contents selection and organization, selection and organization of learning activities, and the assessment / evaluation process.

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 PROCESS MODEL.

Walker (1971) presented a descriptive model, referred to as naturalistic by some scholars and also known as “process model”. His model includes three important elements: (i) platform that provides the beliefs or principles to guide the curriculum developers (ii) deliberation which is the process of making decisions from available alternatives, and (iii) design that is the organization and structure of the curriculum. Lawrence Stenhouse (1975) another advocator of process model defines: ‘A curriculum is an attempt to communicate the essential principles and features of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to critical scrutiny and capable of effective translation into practice’. He suggests that a curriculum is rather like a recipe in cookery. He says, “A curriculum, like the recipe for a dish, is first imagined as a possibility, then the subject of experiment The recipe offered publicly is in a sense a report on the experiment. Similarly, a curriculum should be grounded in practice It is an attempt to describe the work observed in classrooms that it is adequately communicated to teachers and others Finally, within limits, a recipe can be varied according to taste. So can a curriculum.” (Stenhouse 1975: 4-5). At this point he shifted from a conventional process model as he does not consider the curriculum itself as a process rather a mean through which the constructed theory is converted into teaching-learning practices. Weinstein and Fantini (1970) proposed a model, also known as Humanistic Model, links socio-psychological factors with cognition and concerned with the group, as opposed to individuals as most students are taught in groups. The model stresses to identify the learners demographic detai s and their concerns. Through diagnosis, the teacher attempts to develop student-centered strategies for instruction to meet learners’ concerns and organize contents around learners’ concerns rather than on the demands of subject matter. He further emphasizes that the content should be organized according to the learners; life experiences, their attitudes and feelings, and the social context in which they live. Teaching procedures should be developed for learning skills, content, and organizing ideas. Teaching procedures should match the learning styles on their common characteristics and concerns). Finally, the teacher evaluates the outcomes of the curriculum: cognitive and affective objectives. Hawes (1979) proposed a p student-centered models in which the teacher acts as facilitator ‘ather than content authority. According to this model curriculum development is an ongoing process which is influenced by emerging theories & philosophies including theories of child behavior, theories of teaching learning, and theories of the structure of knowledge. It also includes the practices, beliefs, and experiences of those who plan the learning environment. In addition to the core elements like objectives, content, pedagogy, and evaluation the model give importance to aspects like physical situation, teacher behavior, pupil behavior, etc. Although the curriculum development has always been a topic of K-12 education (Tyler’s, 1949; Taba, 1962; Wheeler, 1967; Walker, 1971), many concerns have also been reported in higher education literature as well. These concerns include over-burdened curriculum, lack of coherence. Practicality, accessibility, quality and Integrity (HEC, 2012). In parallel, the business and industry leaders’ concerns of inadequate skills of graduates (UNESCO, 2012), and citizen concerns about graduates’ disengagement from civic life (Kerr & Blenkinsop, 2005), further revels the shortcomings of the under-graduate curriculum. Many deliberate attempts have been made to develop a curriculum model which helps to increases academic rigor, sharpen students’ critical thinking and analytical reasoning, and expose them to richer subject matter. In this regard the main research strides emerge in three areas:

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 INNOVATIVE INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS.
• Innovative instructional methods: In addition to lecture and class discussions, many innovative instructional method; have emerged in higher education including active learning, experiential learning, inquiry based learning, discovery based learning, problem-based learning, project-based learning; collaborative and cooperative learning, understanding by design, ADDIE model of Instructional Design.

• Assessment of student learning: In addition to descriptive, multiple choice and short questions, new evaluation methods have been developed to promote Bloom’s higher-order critical thinking skills and other competencies required in the employment market. New methods include self-assessments, students’ portfolio, open book test, case studies analysis, group projects, prototyping, technology-based evaluation, etc.

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CURRICULUM COHERENCE-INTEGRATION
• Curriculum Coherence and Integration: The latest research bring reforms in curriculum development including integration of general education across the curriculum, integrating the disparate elements of students’ earning experiences, shifting curriculum objectives from content delivery to attaining competencies, etc. In response to the increasing popularity of constructivist learning theory (Bruner, Good now, & Austin. 1956) and instructional design (Seals & Glasgow, 1990) in higher educational practice, Biggs (1996) put forwards a notion of constructive alignment. Biggs adopted the idea of the alignment of instructional design from Cohen’s (1987) who replaces learning with attainment (Biggs, 2002). Instructional alignment demands a precise match between what is intended to be taught, what is intended to be evaluated and what is intended to be learnt (Talbot, 2004). Whereas, constructive alignment asks for a shift from behaviorist pedagogy to constructivist pedagogy through stating the curriculum objectives in terms of the level of understanding required of a student than just listing the topics to be covered. Eisner (1991) model combines behavioral principles with aesthetic components to form a curriculum. His model based on five core elements: intentional, structural. curriculum, pedagogical, and evaluative.

Over the last few years, in higher education new curriculum models have been developed to accommodate new means of delivery, access and storage of information and to incorporate more flexibility into the existing curriculum to provide a better access to a wider range of students (Moran, 1995; Tinkler, Lepani and Mitchell, 1996; Mitchell and Bluer, 1997). Bell & Lefoe (1998), in their flexible learning curriculum design model, talk about the selection of the media to be used for content delivery. Irlbeck, Kays, Jones & Sims’s (2006) “Three-Phase Design (3PD) Model” adopts a team-based approach to design, development, and delivery online courses. Their model allows designing a flexible curriculum for online delivery. Some other models proposed in literature includes inclusive curriculum, learner-centered curriculum (McCombs & Whisler, 1997), spiral curriculum (Bruner, 1996), transformational curriculum (Parker, 2003), internationalization, interdisciplinary, Project Based Learning, Standards Based Learning, Curriculum Mapping (Jacobs, 1997), Integrated Course Design :Fink, 2007) etc.

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 SUITABLE MODEL FOR PAKISTAN.
SUITABLE MODEL FOR PAKISTAN AND REASON FOR ITS SELECTION The concept of a curriculum has always been a point of great concern among educationist since tie late 18th century. Many models of curriculum development have been reported in literature. For example, Classic Model also known as Prescriptive Model (Tyler, 1949), considers curriculum development as a linear and logical activity mainly focusing on four aspects: (i) Educational purposes• a desired goals/objectives, (ii) Educational experiences: instructions & contents which act as a means of attaining these goals/ objectives, (iii) Structure of the curriculum which provides the organization of learning experiences, and (iv) Assessment and evaluation: the processes of determining learning outcomes Tyler (1949) work shows an inclement on toward Skinner’s behaviorism (1957) and John Dewey’s progressive education (1963) as he says, “Since the real purpose of education is not to have the instructor perform certain activities but to bring about significant changes in the students’ pattern of behavior, it becomes important to recognize that any statements of objectives of the school should be a statement of changes to take place in the students” (Tyler 1949: 44). His model is also labeled as “Product Model” as some researchers considered h s thoughts were heavily influenced by ‘scientific management’ which is also associated with his name

Hilda Taba (1962) presented a model, also known as “interactive model” or “Instructional Strategies Model”, which mainly focuses on tl-e planning of instructional strategies and considers it the basis of the curriculum design. Her model includes five mutually interactive elements of teaching and learning system: 0) objectives, (ii) contents, (iii) learning experiences, (iv) teaching strategies, and (v) evaluative measures. Some of the innovative aspects of 1′ aba’s model include determining required objectives and related content, selection and organization of learning experiences in accordance with specified criteria; selection of a variety of teaching strategies aid evaluation procedures and measures. Her model gives due consideration to external factors that may affect various components of a curriculum including the vicinity and community of school’s location, the school district’s educational policies, the goals, resources, and administrative strategies of the school, teachers’ personal style and characteristics, the nature of the student population.
Wheeler (1967) has presented a cyclical model which has many similarities with linear and interactive models. The key elements of this model includes initial situation analysis, identification of aims and objectives, contents selection and organization, selection and organization of learning activities, and the assessment / evaluation process.

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 DESCRIPTIVE MODEL
Walker (1971) presented a descriptive model, referred to as naturalistic by some scholars and also known as “process model”. His model includes three important elements: (i) platform that provides the beliefs or principles to guide the curriculum developers (ii) deliberation which Is the process of making decisions from available alternatives, and (iii; design that is the organization and structure of the curriculum. Lawrence Stenhouse (1975) another advocator of process model defines: ‘A curriculum is an attempt to communicate the essential principles and features of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to critical scrutiny and capable of effective translation into practice’. He suggests that a currculum is rather like a recipe in cookery. He says. “A curriculum, like the recipe for a dish, is first imagined a., a possibility, then the subject of experiment. The recipe offered publicly is in a sense a report on the experiment Similarly, a curriculum should be grounded in practice. It is an attempt to describe the work observed in classrooms that it is adequately communicated to teachers and others. Finally, within limits, a recipe can be varied according to taste. So can a curriculum.” (Stenhouse 1975: 4-5). At this point he shifted from a convent’onal process model as he does not consider the curriculum itself as a process rather a mean through which the constructed theory is converted into teaching-learning practices. Weinstein and Fantini (1970) proposed a model, also known as Humanistic Model, links socio-psychological factors with cognitIon and concerned with the group, as opposed to individuals as most students are taught in groups The model stresses to identify the learners demographic details and their concerns. Through diagnosis, the teacher attempts to develop student-centered strategies for instruction to meet learners’ concerns and organize contents around learners’ concerns rather than on the d zmands of subject matter. He further emphasizes that the content should be organized according to the learners: life experiences, their attitudes and feelings, and the social context in which they live. Teaching procedures should be developed for learning skills, content, and organizing ideas. Teaching procedures should match the learning styles on their common characteristics and concerns). Finally, the teacher evaluates the outcomes of the curriculum: cognitive and affective objectives. Hawes (1979) proposed a p student-centered models in which the teacher acts as facilitator rather than content authority. According to this model curriculum development is an ongoing process which is influenced by emerging theories & philosophies including theories of child behavior, theories of teaching learning, and theories of the structure of knowledge. It also includes the practices, beliefs, and experiences of those who plan the learning environment. In addition to the core elements like objectives, content, pedagogy, and evaluation the model give importance to aspects like physical situation, teacher behavior, pupil behavior, etc.

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
Although the curriculum development has always been a topic of K-12 education (Tyler’s, 1949; Tab& 1962; Wheeler, 1967; Walker, 1971), many concerns have also been reported in higher education literature as well. These concerns include over-burdened curriculum, lack of coherence, practicality, accessibility, quality and Integrity (HEC, 2012). In parallel, the business and industry leaders’ concerns of inadequate skills of graduates (UNESCO, 2012), and citizen concerns about graduates’ disengagement from civic life (Kerr & Blenkinsop, 2005), further revels the shortcomings of the under-graduate curriculum. Many deliberate attempts have been made to develop a curriculum model which helps to increases academic rigor, sharpen students’ critical thinking and analytical reasoning, and expose them to richer subject matter. In this regard the main research strides emerge in three areas:

• Innovative instructional methods: In addition to lecture and class discussions, many innovative instructional methods have emerged in higher education including active learning, experiential learning, inquiry based learning, discovery based learning, problem-based learning, project-based learning; collaborative and cooperative learning, understanding by design, ADDIE model of Instructional Design.

• Assessment of student learning: In addition to descriptive, multiple choice and short questions. New evaluation methods have been developed to promote Bloom’s higher-order critical thinking skills and other competencies required in tie employment market. New methods include self-assessments. Students’ portfolio, open book test, case studies analysis, group projects, prototyping, technology-based evaluation, etc

• Curriculum Coherence and Integration: The latest research bring reforms in curriculum development including integration of general education across the curriculum, integrating the disparate elements of students’ learning experiences, shifting curriculum objectives from content delivery to attaining competencies, etc.

In response to the increasing popularity of constructivist learning theory (Bruner, Goodnow, & Austin, 1956) and instructional design (Seels & Glasgow, 1990) in higher educational practice, Biggs’ (1996) put forwards a notion of constructive alignment. Biggs adopted the idea of the alignment of instructional design from Cohen’s (1987) who replaces learning with attainment (Biggs, 2002). Instructional alignment demands a precise match between what is intended to be taught, what is intended to be eva.uated and what is intended to be learnt (Talbot, 2004). Whereas, constructive alignment asks for a shift from behaviorist pedagogy to constructivist pedagogy through stating the curriculum objectives in terms of the level of understanding required of a student than just listing the topics to be covered. Eisner (1991) model combines behavioral principles with aesthetic components to form a curriculum. His model based on five core elements: intentional, structural, curriculum, pedagogical, and evaluative.

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 NEW CURRICULUM MODELS.
Over the last few years, in higher education new curriculum models have been developed to accommodate new means of delivery, access and storage of information and to incorporate more flexibility into the existing currialum to provide a better access to a wider range of students (Moran, 1995; Tinkler, Lepani and Mitche I, 1996; Mitchell and Bluer, 1997). Bell & Lefoe (1998), in their flexible
Learning curriculum design model, talk about the selection of the media to be used for content del very. Irlbeck, Kays, Jones & Sims’s (2006) “Three-Phase Design (3PD) Model” adopts a team-based approach to design, development, and delivery online courses. Their model allows designing a flexible curriculum for online delivery. Some other models proposed in literature includes inclusive curriculum, learner-centered curriculum (McCombs & Whisler, 1997). spiral curriculum (Bruner, 1996), transformational curricu urn (Parker, 2003), internationalization, interdisciplinary, Project Based Learning, Standards Based Learning, Curriculum Mapping (Jacobs, 1997), Integrated Course Design (Fink, 2007) etc.
AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES
Q NO. 5: DISCUSS THE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES OF BLOOM’S KRATHWAL’S AND HARROW’S TAXONOMIES IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS.
Answer:-
Bloom’s taxonomy:-
is a set of three hierarchical models used to classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity. The three lists cover the learning objectives in cognitive, affective and sensory domains. The cognitive domain list has been the primary focus of most traditional education and is frequently used to structure curriculum learning objectives, assessments and activities. 1 he models were named after Benjamin Bloom, who chaired the committee of educators that devised the taxonomy. He also edited the first volume of the standard text, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. History.

Although named after Bloom, the publication of Taxonomy of Educational Objectives followed a series of conferences from 1949 to 1953, which were designed to improve communication between educators on the design of curricula and examinations fhe first volume of the taxonomy, handbook I: Cognitive”‘ was published in 1956, and in 1964 Handbook II. Affective A revised version of the taxonomy for the cognitive domain was created in 2001. The cognitive domain (knowledge-based) In the original version of the taxonomy, the cognitive domain is broken into the following six levels of objectives. In the 2001 revised edition of Bloom’s taxonomy, the levels are slightly different: Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, Create (rather than Synthesize).

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 REMEMBERING
Remembering:-
Remembering involves recognizing or remembering facts, terms, basic concepts, or answers without necessarily understanding what they mean. Its characteristics may include:
• Knowledge of specifics—terminology, specific facts
• Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics—conventions, trends and sequences. classifications and categories, criteria,, methodology
• Knowledge of the universals and abstractions in a field—principles and generalizations. Theories and structures For example. Name three common varieties of apple. Comprehending Comprehension involves demonstrating understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating the main ideas. Example: Compare the identifying characteristics of a Golden Delicious apple with a Granny Smith apple.

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 APPLYING
Applying:-
Applying involves using acquired knowledge—solving problems in new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules. Learners should be able to use prior knowledge to solve problems, identify connections and relationships and how they apply In new situations. Example: Would apples prevent scurvy, a disease caused by a deficiency in vitamin C? Analyzing

Analyzing:-
Involves examining and breaking information into component parts, determining how the parts relate to one another, identifying motives or causes, and making inferences and find evidence to support generalizations. Its characteristics include:
• Analysis of elements
• Analysis of relationships
• Analysis of organization Example: List four ways of serving foods made with apples and explain which ones have the highest health benefits. Provide references to support your statements.

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 SYNTHESIZING
Synthesizing:-
Synthesizing involves building a structure or pattern from diverse elements; it also refers to the act of putting parts together to form a whole. Its characteristics include:
• Production of a unique communication
• Production of a plan, or proposed set of operations
• Derivation of a set of abstract relations Example: Convert an “unhealthy” recipe for apple pie to a “healthy” recipe by replacing your choice of ingredients. Explain the health benefits of using the ingredients you chose vs. the original ones.

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 EVALUATING.

Evaluating:-
Evaluating involves presenting and defending opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas, or quality of work based on a set of criteria. Its characteristics include:
• Judgments in terms of internal evidence
• Judgments in terms of external criteria Example: Which kinds of apples are best for baking a pie, and why? The affective domain (emotive-based) Skills in the affective domain describe the way people react emotionally and their ability to feel other living things’ pain or joy. Affective objectives typically target the awareness and growth in attitudes, emotion, and feelings. There are five levels in the affective domain moving through the lowest-order processes to the h ghest:

Receiving:-
The lowest level; the student passively pays attention. Without this level no learning can occur. Receiving is about the student’s memory and recognition as well.

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 RESPONDING
Responding:-
The student actively participates in the learning process, not only attends to a stimulus; the student also reacts in some way.

Valuing:-
The student attaches a value to an object, phenomenon, or piece of information. The student associates a value or some values to the knowledge they acquired.

Organizing:-
The student can put together different values, information, and ideas and accommodate them w thin his/her own schema; comparing, relating and elaborating on what has been learned.

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CHARACTERIZING.
Characterizing:-
The student at this level tries to build abstract knowledge. The psychomotor domain (action-based) Skills in the psychomotor domain describe the ability to physically manipulate a tool or instrument like a hand or a hammer. Psychomotor objectives usually focus on change and/or development in behavior and/or skills.
Bloom and his colleagues never created subcategories for skills in the psychomotor domain, but since then other educators have created their own psychomotor taxonomies. Simpson (1972) proposed the following levels.
AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 PERCEPTION
Perception:-
The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity: This ranges from sensory stimulation, through cue selection, to translation. Examples. Detects non-verbal communication cues Estimate where a ball will land after it is thrown and then moving to the correct location to catch the ball. Adjusts heat of stove to correct temperature by smell and taste of food Adjusts the height of the forks on a forklift by comparing where the forks are in relation to the pallet Key words- chooses, describes, deta etc, differentiates, distinguishes, identifies, isolates, relates, selects.

Set:-
Readiness to act: It includes mental, physical, and emotional sets. These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a person’s response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets). This subdiv sion of psychomotor is closely related with the “responding to phenomena” subdivision of the affective domain. i examples: Knows and acts upon a sequence of steps in a manufacturing process. Recognizes his or her abilities and limitations. Shows desire to learn a new process (motivation). Key words: begins, displays, explains, moves, proceeds, reacts, shows, states, volunteers.

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017
Guided response:-
The early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error: Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing. Examples: Performs a mathematical equation as demonstrated. Follows instructions to build a model. Responds to hand-signals of instructor while learning to operate a forklift. Key words: copies, traces, follows, react, reproduce, responds.

Mechanism:-
The intermediate stage in learning a complex skill: Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with iome confidence and proficiency. Examples: Use a personal computer Repair a leaking tap. Drive a car. Key words. Assembles, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats, and manipulates, measures, mends, Mixes, organizes, sketches.

Complex overt response:-
The skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns: Proficiency is indicated by a quick, accurate, and highly coordinated performance, requiring a minimum of energy. This category includes performing without hesitation, and automatic performance. For example, players will often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football, because they can tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce. Examples: Maneuvers a car into a tight parallel parking spot. Operates a computer quickly and accurately displays competence while playing the piano. Key words’ assembles, builds, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, and fixes, grinds, heats. Manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, and organizes, sketches. (Note: The key words are the same as in mechanism, but will have adverbs or adjectives that indicate that the performance is quicker, better, more accurate, etc.)

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 ADAPTATION
Adaptation:-
Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements. Examples: Responds effectively to unexpected experiences. Modifies instruction to meet the needs of the learners. Performs a task with a machine that was not originally intended for that purpose (machine is not damaged and there is no danger in performing the new task). Key words: adapts, alters, changes, rearranges, reorganizes, revises, varies.

Origination:-
Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem: Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills. Examples: Constructs a new set or pattern of movements organized around a novel concept or theory. Develops a new and comprehensive training program. Creates a new gymnastic routine. Key words: arranges, builds, combines, composes, constructs, creates, designs, initiate, makes, originates Definition of knowledge In the appendix to Handbook I, there is a definition of knowledge which serves as the apex for an alternative, summary classification of the educational goals. This is significant as the taxonomy has been called upon significantly in other fields such as knowledge management, potentially out of context. “Knowledge, as defined here, invc Ives the recall of specifics and universals, the recall of methods and processes, or the recall of a pattern, structure, or setting.” The taxonomy is set out as follows: 1.00 Knowledge
• 1.10 Knowledge of specifics
• 1.11 Knowledge of terminology 1.12 Knowledge of specific facts
• 1.20 Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics 1.21 Knowledge of conventions
• 1.22 Knowledge of trends and sequences
• 1.23 Knowledge of classifications and categories
• 1.24 Knowledge of criteria
• 1.25 Knowledge of methodology
• 1.30 Knowledge of the universals and abstractions in a field
• 1.31 Knowledge of principle; and generalizations
• 1.32 Knowledge of theories and structures

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 TAXONOMY
Criticism of the taxonomy As Morshead (1965) pointed out on the publication of the second volume, the classification was not a properly constructed taxonomy, as it lacked a systemic rationale of construction. This was subsequently acknowledged in the discussion of the original taxonomy in its 2000 revise on, and the taxonomy was reestablished on more systematic lines. It is generally considered that the role the taxonomy played in systematizing a field was more important than any perceived lack of rigor in its construction.

Some critiques of the taxonomy’s cognitive domain admit the existence of these six categories, but question the existence of a sequential, hierarchical link. Often, educators view the taxonomy as a hierarchy and may mistakenly dismiss the lowest levels as unworthy of teaching. The learning of the lower levels enables the building of skills in the higher levels of the taxonomy, and in some fields the most important skills are in the lower levels (such as identification of species of plants and animals in the field of natural history). Instructional scaffolding of higher-level skills from lower-level skills is an application of Vygotskian constructivism.

Some consider the three lowest levels as hierarchically ordered, but the three higher levels as parallel. Others say that it is sometimes better to move to Application before introducing concepts, the idea being to create a learning environment where the real world context comes first and the theory second to promote the student’s grasp of the phenomenon, concept or event. This thinking would seem to relate to the method of problem-based learning.

FIND ALSO:- AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017

Furthermore, the distinction between the categories can be seen as artificial since any given cognitive task may entail a number of processes. It could even be argued that any attempt to nicely categorize cognitive processes into clean, cut-and-dried classifications undermines the holistic, highly connective and interrelated nature of cognition. This is a criticism that can be directed at taxonomies of mental processes in general.
AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 IMPLICATIONS.
Implications.
Bloom’s taxonomy serves as the backbone of many teaching philosophies, in particular those that lean more towards skills rather than content. These educators view content as a vessel for teaching skills. The emphasis on higher-order thinking inherent in such philosophies is based on the top levels of the taxonomy including analysis. Evaluation, synthesis and creation. Bloom’s taxonomy can be used as a teaching tool to help balance assessment and evaluative questions in class, assignments and texts to ensure all orders of thinking are exercised in student’s learning, including aspects of information searching.

AIOU CODE 8603 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CONNECTIONS ACROSS DISCIPLINES.
Connections across disciplines:-
The skill development that takes place at these higher orders of thinking interacts well with a developing global focus on multiple literacies and modalities in learning and the emerging field of integrated disciplines. The ability to interface with and create media would draw upon skills from multiple levels of the taxonomy including analysis. Application and creation. Bloom’s taxonomy (and the revised taxonomy) continues to be a source of inspiration for educational philosophy and for developing new teaching strategies.

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One Comment

  1. iftikhar alam khan says:

    where is the 2nd assignment of code no 8603 i con’t find

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