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AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION

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Aiou code 8606 solved assignment 1 spring 2017 citizenship education and community engagement. All B.Ed. assignment are being under process. Aiou code 8606 solved assignment 1 spring 2017 citizenship education explains the ways through which we can train the citizen and community. Aiou code 8606 solved assignment 1 spring 2017 citizenship education developed by our B.Ed. experts. Our experts have more than twenty years’ experience.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION MASS MEDIA

Q.4: A) ELABORATE THE PROCESS OF SOCIALIZATION. ANALYZE THE ROLE OF SCHOOL AND MASS MEDIA AS AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION.
Answer:-
Human infants are born without any culture. They must be transformed by their parents, teachers, and others into cultural and socially adept animals. The general process of acquiring culture is referred to as socialization. During socialization, we learn the language of the culture we are born into as well as the roles we are to play in life. For instance, girls learn how to be daughters, sisters, friends, wives, and mothers. In addition, they learn about the occupational roles that their society has in store for them. We also learn and usually adopt our culture’s norms through the socialization process. Norms are the conceptions of appropriate and expected behavior that are held by most members of the society. While socialization refers to the general process of acquiring culture, anthropologists use the term enculturation for the process of being socialized to a particular culture. You were acculturated to your specific culture by your parents and the other people who raised you. Socialization is important in the process of personality formation. While much of human personality is the result of our genes, the socialization process can mold it in particular directions by encouraging specific beliefs and attitudes as well as selectively providing experiences. This very likely accounts for much of the difference between the common personality types in one society in comparison to another. For instance, the Semai tribesmen of the central Malay Peninsula of Malaysia typically are gentle people who do not like violent, aggressive individuals. In fact, they avoid them whenever possible. In contrast, the Yanomamo Indians on the border area between Venezuela and Brazil usually train their boys to be tough and aggressive. The ideal Yanomam6 man does not shrink from violence and strong emotions. In fact, he seeks them out. Likewise, Shiite Muslim men of Iran are expected at times to publicly express their religious faith through the emotionally powerful act of self-inflicted pain.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 SOCIALIZATION

Successful socialization can result in uniformity within a society. If all children receive the same socialization, it is likely that they will share the same beliefs and expectations. This fact has been a strong motivation for national governments around the world to standardize education and make it compulsory for all children. Deciding what things will be taught and how they are taught is a powerful political tool for controlling people. Those who internalize the norms of society are less likely to break the law or to want radical social changes. In all societies, however, there are individuals who do not conform to culturally defined standards of normalcy because they were “abnormally” socialized, which is to say that they have not internalized the norms of society. These people are usually labeled by their society as deviant or even mentally ill.
Large-scale societies, such as the United States, are usually composed of many ethnic groups. As a consequence, early socialization in different families often varies in techniques, goals, and expectations. Since these complex societies are not culturally homogenous, they do not have unanimous agreement about what should be the shared norms. Not surprisingly, this national ambiguity usually results in more tolerance of social deviancy–it is more acceptable to be different in appearance, personality, and actions in such large-scale societies.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION SOCIALIZATION

HOW ARE CHILDREN SOCIALIZED?
Socialization is a learning process that begins shortly after birth. Early childhood is the period of the most intense and the most crucial socialization. It is then that we acquire language and learn the fundamentals of our culture. It is also when much of our personality takes shape. However, we continue to be socialized throughout our lives. As we age, we enter new statuses and need to learn the appropriate roles for them. We also have experiences that teach us lessons and potentially lead us to alter our expectations, beliefs, and personality. For instance, the experience of being raped is likely to cause a woman to be distrustful of others.

Looking around the world, we see that different cultures use different techniques to socialize their children. There are two broad types of teaching methods–formal and informal. Formal education is what primarily happens in a classroom. it usually is structured, controlled, and directed primarily by adult teachers who are professional “knowers.” In contrast, informal education can occur anywhere. It involves imitation of what others do and say as well as experimentation and repetitive practice of basic skills. This is what happens when children role-play adult interactions in their games.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION SCHOOL ROLE

Schools:-
Schools socialize children in several ways. First, students learn a formal curriculum, informally called the “three Rs”: reading, writing, and arithmetic. This phase of their socialization is necessary for them to become productive members of their society. Second, because students interact every day at school with their peers, they ideally strengthen their social interaction skills. Third, they interact with authority figures, their teachers, who are not their parents. For children who have not had any pre-schooling, their teachers are often the first authority figures they have had other than their parents. The learning they gain in relating to these authority figures is yet another important component of their socialization.

Functional theorists cite all these aspects of school socialization, but conflict theorists instead emphasize that schools in the United States also impart a hidden curriculum by socializing children to accept the cultural values of the society in which the schools are found. To be more specific, children learn primarily positive things about the country’s past and present; they learn the importance of being neat, patient, and obedient; and they learn to compete for good grades and other rewards. In this manner, they learn to love America and not to recognize its faults, and they learn traits that prepare them for jobs and careers that will bolster the capitalist economy. Children are also socialized to believe that failure, such as earning poor grades, stems from not studying hard enough and, more generally, from not trying hard enough (Booher-Jennings, 2008; Bowles & Gintis, 1976). This process reinforces the blaming-the-victim ideology discussed in Chapter 1 “Sociology and the Sociological Perspective”. Schools are also a significant source of gender socialization, as even in this modern day, teachers and curricula send out various messages that reinforce the qualities traditionally ascribed to females and males, and students engage in recess and other extracurricular activities that do the same thing (Booher-Jennings, 2008; Thorne, 1993).

Socialization is the school. Of course, the official purpose of school is to transfer subject knowledge and teach life skills, such as following directions and meeting deadlines. But, students don’t just learn from the academic curriculum prepared by teachers and school administrators. In school, we also learn social skills through our interactions with teachers, staff, and other students. For example, we learn the importance of obeying authority and that to be successful, we must learn to be quiet, to wait, and sometimes to act interested even when we’re not.

Alexander, like other children, might even learn things from his teacher that she did not intend to teach. For instance, he might learn that it’s best to yell out an answer instead of raising his hand. When he does so, he gets rare attention from the teacher and is hardly ever punished.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION MASS MEDIA
Mass Media:-
The mass media, internet and other sorts of technology have all become major things in our society. It seems as if mass media, internet, cell phones, and all these other high tech gadgets are needed tour society function and sadly help us human beings to function as well. If one day the internet and these forms of technology were taken away from us, what would become of our society? Would we be like wild beasts going crazy because we don’t know what to do with our lives? Sadly in today’s society technology has become our best friend that we can barely live without. In this clip shown below is a scene from South Park that shows how human beings are so in need of technology that we don’t know what to do when the internet is taken away from us.

Media is one of the main four agents of socialization that affects youth the most. This is because the media covers the radio, television, and print. There is also electronic media, which includes the use of computers, cell phones, i-Pads, etc. According to the article “Facts about the Influence of Media on Young People” it says “The youth represents majority of the population. Teenagers and young adults are part of this group. They represent the significant percentage of people who are self-conscious of their image; hence they are the target audience of producers and advertisers. The influence can be good or bad, depending on how the individuals respond to the media products”. Since young adults are the targeted audience they are more easily to be influenced than any other age group by the media. The article below goes more into depth about how young people are influenced by mass media.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION YOUNG ADULTS
Young adults are majority time are surrounded by the media. If their using social media such as Twitter, Facebook or Instagram or other forms of mass media they are being influenced. Which brings me to my main question, “How is Mass Media Affecting Socialization in Children and Young Adults?” To understand this question one must know and understand what socialization is. The socialization process is a very dramatic impact on a child’s life, Dictionary.com explains socialization as a “Continuing process whereby an individual acquires a personal identity and learns the norms, values, behavior, and social skills appropriate to his or her social position”. In other words it helps individuals develop their human potential and learn patterns of their culture and society. We learn this through people and the media. In the article below you can learn more about socialization and the process of socialization.
AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION INSTITUTION OF SOCIETY
Q.5: WHAT ARE SOME MAJOR INSTITUTIONS OF SOCIETY? HIGHLIGHT THE IMPORTANCE OF THESE INSTITUTIONS FOR A COUNTRY WITH SOME EXAMPLES.

Answer:-
Pakistan has been in political turmoil since former army chief Pervez Musharraf seized power in a 1999 coup. Through two controversial votes, he remained president for almost nine years until he announced his resignation in August 2008. Experts say Musharraf’s legacy has been a mixed one on fighting terrorism, economic reforms, and encouraging the growth of civil society. He started off with a reformist agenda, liberalizing the economy and the media, and going after militants in the tribal areas.
However, his undemocratic moves in 2007—including a declaration of a state of emergency, and repression of judiciary and the media—triggered wide-scale pro-democracy protests. In response to Musharraf’s rule, the country’s lawyers and civil society groups have emerged as important players in the power dynamics of a state traditionally dominated by the military.
AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION SUPREME COURT AND JUDICIARY.
SUPREME COURT AND THE JUDICIARY:-
The chief justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the president. According to the Pakistani Constitution, the judiciary is separate from the executive and is set up as an independent authority to uphold the rule of law. The Supreme Court stands at the apex of the country’s judicial systems; it has wide jurisdiction, which includes the ability to issue pronouncements on issues it considers of public importance with reference to the enforcement of any of the fundamental rights. These include the right to life and liberty, the right to freedom of speech and expression, the right to fair trial, and the right to equality among others.

There is a high court in each of the four provinces, and there are other courts that exercise civil and criminal jurisdiction. Pakistan also has a Federal Shariat Court comprising eight Muslim judges, including a chief justice appointed by the ‘resident. Cases involving interpretation of Islam are referred to this court. Legal scholar Paula R. Newberg notes in her book, Judging the State: Courts and Constitutional Politics in Pakistan, that Pakistan’s courts and judges are cast as protectors of the constitution in a separation-of-powers system. In many circumstances, however, they have found it expedient or necessary to accommodate constiutional changes or unconstitutional maneuvers by Pakistan’s leaders. They have done so either because they thought this was essential to their own survival or that of the state. On three occasions when military coups ousted democratically elected governments in the country, “the judiciary not only failed to check extra-constitutional regime change, but also endorsed and abetted the consolidation of illegally gained power,” says a 2004 International Crisis Group (ICG) report. Newberg argues that over time, this has weakened the rule of law and given the government leeway for ever-more repressive action.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION JUSTICE IFTIKHAR
In November 2007, Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry and several other Supreme Court judges refused to sign Musharraf’s decision to suspend the constitution and rule by decree. This is unprecedented in Pakistan’s history,” says Hassan Abbas, research fellow at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government. Abbas says Chaudhry, through his suo moto (acting on his own initiative) actions, has demanded greater accountability for bureaucrats, police, and even the intelligence agencies, something that was inconceivable in Pakistan before him. He also gained support of Pakistan’s lawyers, who are one of the best networked communities in the country, able to reach deep into rural areas. But the ICG report writes that the executive “exercises control over the courts by using the system of judicial appointments, promotions and removals to ensure its allies fill key posts.”

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION CIVIL SOCIETY
CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS:-
Civil society in Pakistan comprises nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), community-based organizations, think tanks, trade Unions, cultural groups, and informal citizen organizations. In 2001, Civics, an international alliance of civil society groups, described Pakistan’s civil society as a “collection of incoherent voices, conflicting worldviews and opposing interests” characterized by “unresolved struggle between the practices and values of pre-capitalist society and new modes of social life, between authoritarian legacies, and democratic aspirations.” According to the report, there are:
• Ten thousand to twelve thousand active and registered NGOs in Pakistan. Of these, 59 percent are in Punjab province.
• Up to sixty thousand NGOs if unregistered groups are counted.
• Eight thousand trade unions.
• Six different laws under which NGOs have to be registered.

Because the political space afforded to civil society organizations is limited, these organizations have limited impact on policymaking and implementation. But Abbas says they are increasingly emerging as an important group. “Every time there is a crackdown by government or the military, these activists are the first to be rounded up. This means the military is challenged by them,” he says. 1 he Human Rights Commission of Pakistan is one of the leading organizations fighting for human rights and democratic development in the country. It has loudly condemned the practices of the military and political parties. Hina Jilani, the UN secretary general’s first special representative on human rights defenders in 2000, Asma Jahangir, UN special rapporteur of the UN Human Rights Commission, and I.A. Rehman, director of the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, are well-known names in Pakistan who have gained prominence in the international community. They derive power from their high international profiles and alliances to international civil-society organizations.
AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
Political Organizations:-
Pakistan has more than ninety registered political parties covering a broad spectrum, from ethnic-based to religious to secular The major pa-ties are:

• Pakistan People’s Party (PPP). Founded by former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1967, the PPP was headed by his daughter Benazir Bhutto until her assassination on December 27, 2007. The Party is now co-chaired by Bhutto’s husband Asif Ali Zardari and their son Bilawal Zardari Bhutto. The PPP has been in power three times before. Benazir Bhutto’s government was removed twice on charges of corruption and mismanagement. To avoid arrest on corruption charges filed by her successor Nawaz Sharif. Bhutto went into exile in 1999 and returned to Pakistan in October 2007 as part of an amnesty deal signed with Musharraf. In February 2008 elections, the PPP emerged as the dominant party in the new ruling coalition.

• Pakistan’s Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N). PML inherited the legacy of the Muslim League, the party which dominated the pre-1947 struggle for the creation of Pakistan on the basis of a separate homeland for Indian Muslims. It split into several branches, the most prominent being PML-Nawaz and PML Quaid-e-Azam. PML-N is headed by a former prime minister, Nawaz Sharif, and represents the business, industrial, and feudal interests in the country. Sharif, like his rival Bhutto, faced charges of corruption. After winning the second-largest number of votes in February elections, PML-N, in an unprecedented move, formed a coalition with the PPP. But following disagreements with the PPP, Shard pulled out of the coalition in August 2008.

• Pakistan’s Muslim League-Quaid-e-Azam (PML-Q).This faction emerged after Sharif was forced into exile in 2000 to avoid being tried under corruption charges. The party was seen as the most powerful PML faction until Sharif’s return in 2007. PML-Q supported Musharraf’s government when he was in power

• Muttahida Quami Movement (MQM).The most influential ethnic party, MQM represents the muhajirs. or those who migrated from India to Pakistan in 1947. Founded in 1978 and originally called the Muhajir Qaumi Movement, the party renamed itself the Muttahida Qaumi Movement in the 1990s. MOM remains a powerful political force in the major urban centre of Sindh.

• Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA).A coalition of religious parties such as Jamaat-e-Islami (JO, Maulana Fazlur Rahman’s faction of Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (JUI-F) and Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan. The MMA ran the government in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and was part of a coalition in Balochistan with PML-Q until February 2008. The party is strongly opposed to the “war on terror” and has deep tieswith the Taliban both in Pakistan and Afghanistan. However, the MMA did, at times, reach lccomodations with Musharraf’s government. The party fared poorly in February 2008 elect ons, losing to the Awami National Party in the NWFP.

• Awami National Party (ANP). A Pashtun nationalist party, it was formed in 1986 by the merger of several left-leaning parties. It is led by Asfandyar Wali Khan, son of the party’s first president Khan

Abdul Wali Khan, and grandson of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan. Ghaffar Khan, also known as “Frontier Gandhi” due to his close association with India’s leader Mahatma Gandhi, was opposed to the creation of Pakistan. The party believes in nonviolence and its political base mainly comprises the Pashtuns of the NWFP and northern Balochistan. After winning the maximum number of seats in the NWFP in February’s elections, the party leads the province’s ruling coalition. It also won seats in the provinces of Balochistan and Sindh.
Even though there are a huge number of political parties in the country, the class base for most parties has failed to move beyond the traditional elite. CFR Senior Fellow Daniel Markey says Pakistan is still a very top-down society “where a small elite sits above a massive base, and the inequalities of power and opportunities are extreme.
Internal power struggles in the absence of party elections have frequently led to the fragmentation of political parties, adding to the increasing number of political groups in the country. Moreover, “in terms of ideology,” writes the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, “the major political parties have been moving closer towards each other, and generally steering away from agendas advocating radical social change.
AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION MEDIA ORGANIZATIONS
MEDIA ORGANIZATIONS:-
Pakistan has a history of vibrant, private, and independent print media such as English language newspapers, Dawn, The Frontier Post, Daily Times, The Friday Times, The News, and Urdu language newspapers like the tang and Daily Khabrain. But print media cannot serve as mass media it a country where more than half the population is illiterate. With only 47 percent literacy (PDF), compared to an average of 60 percent in South Asia, Pakistan’s newspapers fail to reach a significant segment of population, especially in the rural areas. While newspapers inform the educated in urban areas, in rural Pakistan, people have long depended on radio and state-run television channels for information in the absence of any private broadcast media in the country. When Musharraf assumed power, he changed the landscape for private broadcast media in the country. A range of television, and radio outlets, as well as Internet sites, opened up as more and more private players won licenses to operate. Now Geo TV network, ARY-TV, and AAJ N compete with state-run news channels.

On The Media, a weekly National Public Radio program, described the changes Musharraf wrought as a cultural breakthrough. Freelance journalist Shahan Mufti told On The Media that until Musharraf opened up the media, “Pakistanis were used to being told things through the state media” But now after private news channels started operating, “it allowed all sorts of voices of all political persuasion to appear on N.” But the new and young broadcast media came into conflict with its creator in March 2007. The media showed live coverage of events as they unfolded when Musharraf tried to sack former Chief Justice Chaudhry, stirring up such public outcry against the decision that the president had to reinstate the judge.
The year that followed was the worst ever for the media in Pakistan in the country’s sixty-ore-year history, states a May 2008 report (PDF) by the journalism watchdog group Inter news Pakistan. According to the report, fifteen journalists got killed between May 2007 and May 2008, the highest number in any one year. After Musharraf declared a state of emergency in November 2007, he ordered a media blackout and new laws were imposed to curb the media. The report says government authorities arrested and abducted, journalists attacked media properties, and Islamabad emerged as the ‘media threat capital” of Pakistan. Yet “the media has emerged as one of the key stakeholders on the political scene,” it asserts.

Stock Market and the Economy eater seizing power in a coup in 1999, Musharraf undertook economic reforms, including fiscal adjustment; privatization of energy, telecommunications, and production; banking sector reform; and trade reform. According to economists, these have played a key role in the country’s economic recovery. The World Bank says that external factors—such as low interest rates, increased external assistance, and debt restructuring—also played a role. After 9/11, increased remittances and additional support from the United States helped increase the country’s external reserves. Since 2003, the economy has grown by more than 6.5 percent per year and poverty has declined significantly.

The main stock index rose more than 1,000 percent between the end of 2001 and 2007. Despite some of the worst unrest in years, the economy continued to hum through 2007. The United States is the largest investor in Pakistan, accounting for nearly one-third of the country’s foreign direct investment from July 2007 to September 2007, according to Pakistan’s ministry of finance. CFR’s Markey says the success of the financial markets and the expansion of the economy under Musharraf had been fundamental to his staying power. By keeping their money in Pakistan, investors—both domestic and international—continued to prop up the government.

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But political uncertainty and a deteriorating security environment in the past year have affected capital inflows and curtailed investment. The economy has been on the decline as Pakistanis suffer frequent blackouts and spiraling food and oil prices. In July 2008, inflation was over 24 percent, the highest in thirty years. The Economist Intelligence Unit paints a bleak outlook for the country in 2008-09. According to its estimate, real GDP growth (by expenditure) slowed to 3.6 percent in 2007-08, down from 6.4 percent the previous year

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017 CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION QUESTION # 1 TO 3

10 Comments

  1. precious pari says:

    sir b.a ka 484 ka solved assignment b de den

  2. plz update 2nd assignment of 8606

  3. Ahsan Hassan Alvi says:

    Please upload BEd spring assignment
    code 8602 8603 8604 8605 8604

  4. 8606 2nd assignment upload
    8602 8603 8604 8605 1st and 2nd assignment

  5. Ahsan Hassan Alvi says:

    PLEASE UPLOAD B.ED 1ST SEMESTER ASSIGNMENT OF AIOU

  6. Kindly B.com ki assignment upload krn
    Code. 402, 438. Spring semester 2017

  7. plz update 2nd assignment of 8606

  8. Dear Sir plz update 2nd assignment of 8606. thanx

  9. SIR PLZ SEND ME 2ND ASSIGNMENT OF 8606 AT [email protected]

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