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AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017

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Aiou code 8606 solved assignment 2 spring 2017 for B.Ed. subject citizenship education and community engagement. The aiou code 8606 solved assignment 2 spring 2017 must always try to upload in complete form. This subject is offered to B.Ed. students by aiou in first semester. So all the B.Ed. students of first semester must share aiou code 8606 solved assignment 2 spring 2017 with their colloquies.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES.

Q.4: MAKE A COMPARISON AMONG THE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION FROM DIFFERENT SCHOOL OF THOUGHT. DO YOU THINK THAT PERSONALITY OF THE TEACHERS CAN BE A SOURCE OF MOTIVATION FOR THEIR STUDENTS? GIVE ARGUMENT.

Answer: The earliest studies of motivation involved an examination of individual needs. Specifically, early researchers thought that employees try hard and demonstrate goal-driven behavior in order to satisfy needs For example, an employee who is always walking around the office talking to people may have a need for companionship, and his behavior may be a way of satisfying this need. At the time, researchers developed theories to understand what people need. Four theories may be placed under this category: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, ERG theory, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, and McClelland’s acquired-needs theory.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 MASLOW HIERARCHY

MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS:-
Abraham Maslow is among the most prominent psychologists of the twentieth century. His hierarchy of needs is an image familiar to most business students and managers. The theory is based on a simple premise: Human beings have needs that are hierarchically ranked. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396; Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York. Harper. There are some needs that are basic to all human beings, and in their absence nothing else matters. As we satisfy these basic needs, we start looking to satisfy higher order needs. In other words, once a lower level need is satisfied, it no longer serves as a motivator.
The most basic of Maslow’s needs are physiological needs. Physiological needs refer to the need for food, water. And other biological needs. These needs are basic because when they are lacking, the search for them may overpower all other urges. Imagine being very hungry. At that point, all your behavior may be directed at finding food. Once you eat, though, the search for food ceases and the promise of food no longer serves as a motivator. Once physiological needs are satisfied, people tend to become concerned about safety needs. Are they free from the threat of danger, pain, or an uncertain future? On the next level up, social needs refer to the need to bond with other human beings, be loved, and form lasting attachments with others. In fact, attachments, or lack of them, are associated with our health and well-being. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin. 117, 497-529. The satisfaction of social needs makes esteem needs more salient. Esteem need refers to the desire to be respected by one’s peers, feel important, and be appreciated. Finally, at the highest level of the hierarchy, the need for self-actualization refers to “becoming all you are capable of becoming.” This need manifests itself by the desire to acquire new skills, take on new challenges, and behave in a way that will lead to the attainment of one’s life goals.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST

Maslow was a clinical psychologist. and his theory was not originally designed for work settings. In fact, his theory was based on his observations of individuals in clinical settings; some of the individual components of the theory found little empirical support. One criticism relates to the order in which the needs are ranked. It is possible to imagine that individuals who go hungry and are in fear of their lives might retain strong bonds to others, suggesting a different order of needs. Moreover, researchers failed to support the arguments that once a need is satisfied it no longer serves as a motivator Self- and that only Actualization one need is dominant at a Esteem given time. Neher, A (1991). Masi ow’s theory of Social motivation: A critique. Journa I of Humanistic Psychology, 31, Safety 89-112; Rauschenberge r, J., Schmitt, Physiological N.. & Hunter, 1 E. (1980). A test of the need hierarchy concept by a
Markov model of change in need strength. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25, 654-670. Despite the lack of strong research support, Maslow’s theory found obvious applications in business settings. Understanding what people need gives us clues to understanding them. The hierarchy is a systematic way of thinking about the different needs employees may have at any given point and explains different reactions they may have to similar treatment. An employee who is trying to satisfy esteem needs may feel gratified when her supervisor praises an accomplishment. However, another employee who is trying to satisfy social needs may resent being praised by upper management in front of peers if the praise sets the individual apart from the rest of the group.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 SATISFY THE EMPLOYEES

How can an organization satisfy its employees’ various needs? In the long run, physiological needs may be satisfied by the person’s paycheck, but it is important to remember that pay may satisfy other needs such as safety and esteem as well. Providing generous benefits that include health insurance and company sponsored retirement plans, as well as offering a measure of job security, will help satisfy safety needs. Social needs may be satisfied by having a friendly environment and providing a workplace conducive to collaboration and communication with others. Company picnics and other social get-togethers may also be helpful if the majority of employees are motivated primarily by social needs (but may cause resentment if they are not and if they have to sacrifice a Sunday afternoon for a company picnic). Providing promotion opportunities at work, recognizing a person’s accomplishments verbally or through more formal reward systems, and conferring job titles that communicate to the employee that one has achieved high status within the organization are among the ways of satisfying esteem needs. Finally, self-actualization needs may be satisfied by the provision of development and growth opportunities on or off the job, as well as by work that is interesting and challenging. By making the effort to satisfy the different needs of each employee. Organizations may ensure a highly motivated workforce. ERG Theory Figure 5.4

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 ERG THEORY OF MOTIVATION

ERG theory includes existence, relatedness, and growth.
Source:-
Based on Alderfer, C. P. (1969). An empirical test of o new theory of human needs. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4, 142-175. ERG theory, developed by Clayton Alderfer, is a modification of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.Alderfer, C. P. (1969). An empirical test of a new theory of human needs. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4, 142-175. Instead of the five needs that are hierarchically organized, Alderfer proposed that basic human needs may be grouped under three categories, namely, existence, relatedness, and growth. Existence corresponds to Maslow’s physiological and safety needs, relatedness corresponds to social needs, and growth refers to Maslow’s esteem and self-actualization.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 ERG THEORY

ERG theory’s main contribution to the literature is its relaxation of Maslow’s assumptions. For example. FRG theory does not rank needs in any particular order and explicitly recognizes that more than one need may operate at a given time. Moreover, the theory has a “frustration-regression” hypothesis suggesting that
individuals who are frustrated in their attempts to satisfy one need may regress to another. For example, someone who is frustrated by the growth opportunities in his job and progress toward career goals may regress to relatedness need and start spending more time socializing with coworkers. The implication of this theory is that we need to recognize the multiple needs that may be driving individuals at a given point to understand their behavior and properly motivate them.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 TWO FACTOR THEORY

TWO-FACTOR THEORY:-
Frederick Herzberg approached the question of motivation in a different way. By asking individuals what satisfies them on the job and what dissatisfies them, Herzberg came to the conclusion that aspects of the work environment that satisfy employees are very different from aspects that dissatisfy thenv-lerzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. (1959) The motivation to work. New York: John Wiley; Herzberg, F. (1965). The motivation to work among Finnish supervisors. Personnel Psychology, 18, 393-402. Herzberg labeled factors causing dissatisfaction of workers as “hygiene” factors because these factors were part of the context in which the job was performed, as opposed to the job itself. Hygiene factors included company policies, supervision, working conditions, salary, safety, and security on the job. To illustrate, imagine that you are working in an unpleasant work environment. Your office is too hot in the summer and too cold in the winter. You are being harassed and mistreated. You would certainly be miserable in such a work environment. However, if these problems were sclved (your office temperature is just right and you are not harassed at all), would you be motivated? Most likely, you would take the situation for granted. In fact, many factors in our work environment are things that we miss when they are absent but take for granted if they are present. In contrast, motivators are factors that are intrinsic to the job, such as achievement, recognition, interesting work, increased responsibilities, advancement, and growth opportunities. According to Herzberg’s research, motivators are the conditions that truly encourage employees to try harder. I- Tuft 5 5

The two-factor theory of motivation includes hygiene factors and motivators. Sources: Based on Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York: John Wiley and Sons; Herzberg, F. (1965). The motivation to work among Finnish supervisors. Personnel Psychology, 18, 393-402. Herzberg’s research is far from being universally accepted.Cummings, L. L., & Elsalmi, A. M. (1968). Empirical research on the
Hygiene Factors:-
• Company policy
• Supervision and relationships
• Working conditons
• Salary
• Security

MOTIVATORS
• Achievement
• Recongniton
• Interesting work
• Increased responsibility
• Advancement and growth.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 TYPES OF RELATIONSHIP

Similarly, the quality of supervision or the types of relationships employees form with their supervisors may determine whether they are assigned interesting work, whether they are recognized for their potential, and whether they take on more responsibilities. Despite its limitations, the theory can be a valuable aid to managers because it points out that improving the environment in which the job is performed goes only so far in motivating employees. Undoubtedly, contextual factors matter because their absence causes dissatisfaction. However, solely focusing on hygiene factors will not be enough, and managers should also enrich jobs by giving employees opportunities for challenging work, greater responsibilities, advancement opportunities, and a job in which their subordinates can feel successful.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 ACQUIRED NEEDS THEORY

ACQUIRED-NEEDS THEORY:-
Among the need-based approaches to motivation, David McClelland’s acquired-needs theory is the one that has received the greatest amount of support. According to this theory, individuals acquire three types of needs as a result of their life experiences. These needs are the need for achievement, the need for affiliation, and the need for power. All individuals possess a combination of these needs, and the dominant needs are thought to drive employee behavior.

McClelland used a unique method called the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) to assess the dominant need.Spangler, W. D. (1992). Validity of questionnaire and TAT measures of need for achievement: Two meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 140-154. This method entails presenting research subjects an ambiguous picture asking them to write a story based on it. Take a look at the following picture. Who is this person? What is she doing? Why is she doing it? The story you tell about the woman in the picture would then be analyzed by trained experts. The idea is that the stories the photo evokes would reflect how the mind works and what motivates the person.

If the story you come up with contains themes of success, meeting deadlines, or coming up with brilliant ideas, you may be high in need for achievement. Those who have high need for achievement have a strong need to be successful. As children, they may be praised for their hard work, which forms the :oundations of their persistence.Mueller, C. M., & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Praise for intelligence can undermine children’s motivation and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 33-52. As adults, they arc preoccupied with doing things better than they did in the past. These individuals are constantly striving to improve their performance. They relentlessly focus on goals, particularly stretch goals that are challenging in nature.Campbell, D. J. (1982).

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 CHOICE OF GOALS

Determinants of choice of goal difficulty level: A review of situational and personality influences. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 55, 79-95. They are particularly suited to positions such as sales, where there are explicit goals, feedback is immediately available, and their effort often leads to success. In fact, they are more attracted to organizations that are merit-based and reward performance rather than seniority. They also do particularly well as entrepreneurs, scientists, and engineers.Harrell, A. M., & Stahl, M. J. (1981). A behavioral decision theory approach for measuring McClelland’s trichotomy of needs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 242-247; Trevis, C. S., & Certo, S. C. (2005). Spotlight on entrepreneurship. Business Horizons, 48, 271-274; Turban, D. 8., & Keon, T. L. (1993) Organizational attractiveness: An interactionist perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 184-193. Are individuals who are high in need for achievement effective managers? Because of their success in lower level jobs where their individual contributions matter the most, those with high need for achievement are often promoted to higher level positions.McClelland, D. C., & Boyatzis, R. E. (1982). Leadership motive pattern and long-term success in management. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 737-743.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 MANAGEMENT POSITON

However, a high need for achievement has significant disadvantages in management positions. Management involves getting work done by motivating others. When a salesperson is promoted to be a sales manager, the job description changes from actively selling to recruiting, motivating, and training salespeople. Those who are high in need for achievement may view managerial activities such as coaching, communicating, and meeting with subordinates as a waste of time and may neglect these aspects of their jobs. Moreover, those high in need for achievement enjoy doing things themselves and may find it difficult to delegate any meaningful authority to their subordinates. These individuals often micromanage, expecting others to approach tasks a particular way, and may become overbearing bosses by expecting everyone to display high levels of Creativity is key to captivating a student. So often when someone reflects on their education, they remember a particular moment in the classroom that stayed with them. They remember when a teacher turned the table of elements into a rap or used an episode of The Real World to illustrate an invaluable ife lesson. They remember the group projects that involved more painting than writing, the role-plays and the fun games to test their knowledge. Showing a student something they haven’t seen before even showing them something familiar but in a new way is the surest way to leave an impression that lasts for years.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 UNWAVERING COMMITMENTS

Dedication A great teacher must be dedicated to their students, with an unwavering commitment to their education and well being. It’s easy to be enthusiastic about teaching when things are going well but teaching isn’t always easy. Like with any job, teachers occasionally have their bad days, but a dedicated teacher realizes the rewards of teaching are far more important. In the face of frustration, a dedicated teacher continues trying to reach each of their students, and they exercise the patience needed to ensure that a disinterested student still learns. This requires being flexible and adapting to each student. A great teacher never gives up. Discipline

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 UNPOPULARITY

When it comes to teaching, many people associate strictness with unpopularity. On the other hand, some adults look back on their education and remember their strictest teachers as some of their best. How can this be? The truth is there are ways to enforce rules without being too strict. While it’s important to establish trust and communication with students, it’s also important to bring structure and organization to the classroom. Having fair expectations of students ensures they learn how to prioritize, manage their time and listen attentively. A great teacher imposes rules and makes demands of their students, but in a way that is not intimidating. Having structure in the classroom does not have to include being overly strict. And over time students appreciate the value of discipline. One of the truest marks of a great teacher is the ability to bring out the best in students A great teacher recognizes their students’ potentia to become great people, and they inspire them to be just that.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES

Q.5: EXPLAIN THE NATURE OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE LAST FEW YEARS AND WHAT WAYS IT HAS INFLUENCED THE PAKISTANI SOCIETY?
Answer:-
What Is Technological Change In economics, a technological change is an increase in the efficiency of a product or process that results in an increase in output, without an increase in input. In other words, someone invents or improves a product or process, which is then used to get a bigger reward for the same amount of work. The telephone is an example of a product that has undergone a technological change. It has undergone many different changes over the years that have made it more efficient. Processes or products, such as the telephone, move through technological change in three stages:
• Invention – the creation of a new product or process
• Innovation – the application of the invention for the first time
• Diffusion – how fast others begin to adopt the innovation Impacts of Technological Change We have all likely experienced the impact of technology. Let’s take a look at the ways, both good and bad, technological change has impacted our world:
• Creates new products and processes When telephones were first invented, the object was to be able to verbally communicate with someone. Due to technological changes, we have multiple ways to communicate using our phones, such as :ext, email, or talk.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 PRODUCTIVITY

• Increases efficiency, lower costs Technology makes it possible to perform everyday tasks faster and with less energy on our part. For instance, some people have a vacuum cleaning robot. instead of spending 30 minutes vacuuming, they push a button and go do something else. That’s efficiency.
• Helps economies evolve
dedication.McClelland, D. C., & Burnham, D. H. (1976). Power is the great motivator. Harvard Business Review. 25, 159-166. If the story you created in relation to the picture you are analyzing contains elements of making plans to be with friends or family, you may have a high need for affiliation. Individuals who have a high need for affiliation want to be liked and accepted by others. When given a choice, they prefer to interact with others and be with friends. Wong, M. M., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1991). Affiliation motivation and daily experience: Some issues on gender differences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 154-164. Their emphasis on harmonious interpersonal relationships may be an advantage in jobs and occupations requiring frequent Interpersonal interaction, such as a social worker or teacher. In managerial positions, a high need for affiliation may again serve as a disadvantage because these individuals tend to be overly concerned about how they are perceived by others. They may find it difficult to perform some aspects of a manager’s job such as giving employees critical feedback or disciplining poor performers. Thus, the work environment may be characterized by mediocrity and may even lead to high performers leaving the team. Finally, if your story contains elements of getting work done by influencing other people or desiring to make an impact on the organization, you may have a high need for power. Those with a high need for power want to influence others and control their environment. A need for power may in fact be a destructive element in relationships with colleagues if it takes the form of seeking and using power for one’s own good and prestige. However, when it manifests itself in more altruistic forms such as changing the way things are done so that the work environment is more positive, or negotiating more resources for one’s department, it tends to lead to positive outcomes. In fact, the need for power is viewed as an important trait for effectiveness in managerial and leadership positions. McClelland, D. C., & Burnham, D. H. (1976). Power s the great motivator. Harvard Business Review, 25, 159-166; Spangler, W. D., & House, R. J. (1991). Presidential effectiveness and the leadership motive profile. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 439-455; Spreier, S. W. (2006). Leadership run amok. Harvard Business Review, 84, 72-82. McClelland’s theory of acquired needs has important implications for the motivation of employees. Managers need to understand the dominant needs of their employees to be able to motivate them. While people who have a high need for achievement may respond to goals, those with a high need for power may attempt to gain influence over those they work with, and individuals high in their need for affiliation may be motivated to gain the approval of their peers and supervisors Finally, those who have a high drive for success may experience difficulties in managerial positions, and making them aware of common pitfalls may increase their effectiveness.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 EFFECTS OF TEACHERS’ PERSONALITY

EFFECTS OF TEACHERS’ PERSONALITY ON STUDENTS MOTIVATION
Almost anyone can become a teacher, but it takes a special person to be a great teacher. To inspire not just a great student, but a great person, a teacher must rise above the crowd and make a lasting impression. So what does a student remember for years to come? Which characteristics make a great teacher? Empathy

A great teacher is sensitive to their students’ needs. On a child’s first day of kindergarten, when they are crying for their parents and refusing to participate in class, a great teacher sits with them until they calm down. In middle school, when a child enters adolescence, overwhelmed by learning not just academics, but learning about themselves a great teacher is patient, understanding and available to talk. And in high school and college, when faced with the task of planning their future, a student looks for a teacher to provide insight and wisdom. Enthusiasm

Why should a student be excited about learning when their teacher is not excited about teaching? No teacher can be great without loving what they do. To excite and inspire a student requires excitement and a passion for the material itself. Enthusiasm is contagious. All it takes for a student to get excited about going to class is a teacher who is excited and whose positive energy fills the classroom. Creativity
Technological change, technological development, technological achievement, or technological progress is the overall process of invention, innovation and diffusion of technology or processes. In essence technological change is the invention of technologies (including processes) and their commercialization via research and development (producing emerging technologies), the continual improvement of technologies (in which they often become less expensive), and the diffusion of technologies throughout industry or society (which sometimes involves disruption and convergence). In short, technological change is based on both better and more technology.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 TODAY’S SOCIETY

Society today is constantly dictated and changed by the latest and greatest technology that is available technology and human life have become one and cannot be separated. Society has a cyclical co-dependence on technology. We use technology; depend on technology in our daily life and our needs and demands for technology keep on rising. Humans use technology to travel, to communicate, to learn, to do business and to live in comfort.
Technology has changed our society. There’s no denying it that 20 years ago everything was different – the way we communicated and how we went about business. Our society has witnessed a revolution. Technology has not only improved our society but has also made our lives easier. In this article we take a bird’s eye view of some of the major changes that appeared in our society and how it brought changes in our behaviors as a nation.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 IMPORTANCE OF LANDLINE TELEPHONE

Not long ago, there was only landline telephone and even that was not available to everyone. Having landline telephone connection was considered snobbery. Then cell phone was introduced and in very short span of time it dramatically changed our lives and impacted on our day-to-day matters. In recent times, our communication has been made quick and efficient. Communication is used for a number of purposes. People use technology to communicate with each other. Electronic media like radio, television, internet, and social media have improved the way we exchange ideas which can ultimately develop our societies. Technology is positively impacting our transportation system. In recent times, we have witnessed that we can call a cab at our doorstep. Even we have e-ticking system in our city buses. Technology has also improved education and learning process. Many schools have started integrating educational technologies in their schools with a great aim of improving the way students learn. Technologies like smart whiteboards, computers, mobile phones, iPad, projectors and Internet are being used in classrooms to boost students’ moral to learn. Visual education is becoming more popular and it has proved to be the best method of learning in many subjects like mathematics, physics, biology, geography, economics and much more. The business community has invested money in various educational technologies which can be used by both teachers and their students.

AIOU CODE 8606 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 SPRING 2017 THE ROLE OF ONLINE EDUCATION

Because of technology the era of online education has started in Pakistan. The pervasive use of mobile devices, the Internet and social media has changed the way we live, work and communicate. Social networking uses have increased manifolds. There is indeed a great diversity of social networking sites by countries and cultures. Even uneducated people know how to use social media like Facebook. Nowadays, we also stay connected with old friends online. Because of technology we have also revolutionized our medical fields too. Our hospitals are more equipped with modern technologies and keep pace with the needs of today’s patients. We have latest lab testing processes and complex surgeries like kidney transplant and open heart surgeries are taking place in our hospitals and saving precious lives.

FIND HERE:- AIOU CODE 8602 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 SPRING 2017

So far, these are some of the major areas which witnessed changes because of technology. Realizing the importance of technology in coming time our government established an Information Technology university years back. Considering the impact of technology on our society and the ongoing technology developments, we would certainly have a promising future for our coming generations.

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