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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016
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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016 QUESTION # 1
Q:- 1 GIVE ANSWER TO THE FOLLOWING SHORT QUESTIONS: (5X4=20)
(I):- DEFINE TEACHING IN MORE EFFECTIVE TERMS.
The term “teaching effectiveness” had its heyday in the 80s and early 90s during that period when so much work on student ratings was being done. Its connection to evaluation activities remains and even end-of-course ratings are often thought of as measures of teaching effectiveness. Given its continuing importance, it is a term we should regularly revisit. Definitions for teaching effectiveness abound, which makes it difficult to identify any one as definitive. We’ve defined it by asking those concerned (teachers, students, and administrators) what the term means to them. Here are some examples of how we’ve asked and what’s been answered. When asked to list in order of importance the three most important abilities, students, teachers, and administrators agreed on the same three — cultivate thinking skills, stimulate interest in the subject, and motivate students to learn — but not in the same order. In another study, researchers compared the words and phrases students used to describe effective and ineffective teachers. The top three words used to characterize teachers with the highest ratings were: interesting, approachable, and clarity. The definition extracted from descriptions of teachers nominated for teaching awards used these words: approachable, presents material well, makes subject interesting, helpful, and knowledgeable. In 1988, Kenneth Feldman did a meta-analysis of 31 studies in which teachers and students identified characteristics they associated with good teaching and effective instruction. He found that students emphasized the importance of teachers being interesting, having good elocutionary skills, being available, and helpful. Faculty placed more importance on being intellectually challenging, motivating students, setting high standards, and encouraging self-initiated learning.
PART 2 QUESTION # 1 AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016
(II) WHAT IS CONDUCIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT?
Answer: Physical and sociology-cultural environments affect students’ learning for better or worse. It is in the hands of an effective teacher to turn environmental disadvantages into advantages. However adverse the physical, social and cultural environment may be, teachers can make a substantial difference in creating a conducive learning environment in the classroom for all children.
Every school and classroom environment consists of two aspects – physical and socio-cultural. Often not equipped with adequate physical environment, schools in the country, except may be those corporate schools targeting the super-rich, find themselves in the lurch when teachers also fail in creating a conducive atmosphere for learning in classrooms. While teachers cannot exercise any control over certain aspects of the physical environment of a classroom, there are ample characteristics that impact the learning climate, which they can control and create.
ACCESSIBILITY TO RESOURCES:- Given that there are only limited resource materials needed for instruction in a classroom, teachers must ensure that chalks, charts, models, equipment for demonstration etc are made available to students in every session.
DISSUADING BIASES:- Researches show that teachers can create a positive difference in the lives of those students who are socio-culturally disadvantaged. Students who like their classrooms and perform well in their studies are those who experience their teachers to be caring and supportive. INCLUSIVE SETTING:- Disability is never a deficiency, it becomes so when society fails to create a favorable environment for them to learn and progress. Teachers must never put up an attitude of deficiency before the students, particularly to the disabled.
INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES:- Teachers should use adequate instructional techniques in line with the socio-cultural characteristics of learners, which in turn will influence their learning. Instructional strategies that favor the learning needs of children should be acquired and implemented as part of the curriculum to boost their academic performance.
KNOWLEDGE OF SOCIO LINGUISTICS:- Creating a conducive ambience for learning in classrooms necessarily demands a proper know-how of the sociolinguistics of students by the teacher. Lack of such an understanding may give way for misunderstanding and lack of communication. Unless a teacher understands properly the sociolinguistics of his/her students, s/he will not be able to assess why a student responds or reacts in a particular way.
SUPPORTIVE AMBIENCE:- Numerous research studies sustain the fact that an affectionate, caring and empathetic approach from teachers impels the students to be serious about their lessons, cooperate wholeheartedly with their mentors in accomplishing the targets and work hard in achieving expectations.
ACCEPTANCE AND TOLERANCE:- Creating a positive atmosphere of learning in schools and classrooms will also depend a lot on the ability of teachers to establish a culture of mutual respect and understanding among the students. It is important that the students are trained in the academy of acceptance and tolerance for one another.
SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS:- Another feature of a conducive classroom environment is proactive and encouraging social relationship. Students should be able to work with others in group to complete tasks, engage with others in project works and get along with everyone else in an easy manner enhancing and nourishing the learning experience of every other student.
AUTUMN 2016 AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8601 PART # 3 QUESTION 1
(III) WRITE DOWN THE FIVE MERITS OF LESSON PLANNING.
1. It inspires the teacher to improve the further lessons.
2. It helps the teacher in evaluating his teaching.
3. It develops self confidence in the teacher.
4. Proper care is taken on take into consideration, the level and previous knowledge of students.
5. The teaching matter is organized in a time-frame.
6. It inspires the teacher to ask proper and important questions.
7. It provides guidance to the teacher as to what and home he should teach.
8. It helps in creating the interest of students towards the lesson.
9. It stimulates the teacher to think in an organized manner.
10. It helps the teacher to understand to objectives properly.
CODE 8601 AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 AUTUMN 2016 PART 4 QUESTION 1
(IV) DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE REASONING.
Deductive reasoning Deductive reasoning is a basic form of valid reasoning. Deductive reasoning, or deduction, starts out with a general statement, or hypothesis, and examines the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion, according to the University of California. The scientific method uses deduction to test hypotheses and theories. “In deductive inference, we hold a theory and based on it we make a prediction of its consequences. That is, we predict what the observations should be if the theory were correct. We go from the general — the theory — to the specific — the observations,” said Dr. Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, a researcher and professor emerita at Albert Einstein College of Medicine.
In deductive reasoning, if something is true of a class of things in general, it is also true for all members of that class. For example, “All men are mortal. Harold is a man. Therefore, Harold is mortal.” For deductive reasoning to be sound, the hypothesis must be correct. It is assumed that the premises, “All men are mortal” and “Harold is a man” are true. Therefore, the conclusion is logical and true.
INDUCTIVE REASONING:- Inductive reasoning is the opposite of deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning makes broad generalizations from specific observations. “In inductive inference, we go from the specific to the general. We make many observations, discern a pattern, make a generalization, and infer an explanation or a theory,” Wassertheil-Smoller told Live Science. “In science there is a constant interplay between inductive inference (based on observations) and deductive inference (based on theory), until we get closer and closer to the ‘truth,’ which we can only approach but not ascertain with complete certainty.”
Even if all of the premises are true in a statement, inductive reasoning allows for the conclusion to be false. Here’s an example: “Harold is a grandfather. Harold is bald. Therefore, all grandfathers are bald.” The conclusion does not follow logically from the statements.
Inductive reasoning has its place in the scientific method. Scientists use it to form hypotheses and theories. Deductive reasoning allows them to apply the theories to specific situations.
(V) ENLIST THE LIMITATIONS OF ACTIVITY METHODS.
1) The activity based instruction method requires long-term planning with minute details of the whole process because before engaging the learners, the teacher has to make sure that all students have sufficient knowledge and skills regarding the task they are going to perform. So this method can not be used on a regular and daily basis as it involves a lengthy procedure.
2) The objectives of the method can only be fulfilled if the planning of the lesson is flawless. If there is slightest flaw in the planning, this method would do more harm than good.
3) Learners have varied levels of merit and understanding. So less meritorious students might not prepare for a task as other which might lead to failure of objectives of the whole process.
4) Many renowned educationists also are of the opinion that the activity based method is more suitable for branches of experimental sciences and less useful for subjects of social sciences.
AIOU CODE 8601 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT B.ED AUTUMN 2016 QUESTION # 2
Q. 2 WHAT IS LESSON PLANNING? DESCRIBE THE CLASSICAL MODELS OF LESSON PLANNING.(20)
Lesson Planning: A lesson plan is a teacher’s detailed description of the course of instruction, or ‘learning trajectory’ for a lesson. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class learning. Details will vary depending on the preference of the teacher, subject being covered, and the needs of the students. There may be requirements mandated by the school system regarding the plan. A lesson plan is the teacher’s guide for running a particular lesson, and it includes the goal (what the students are supposed to learn), how the goal will be reached (the method, procedure) and a way of measuring how well the goal was reached (test, worksheet, homework etc.).
CLASSICAL MODELS OF LESSON PLANNING:- These are highly structured plans devised using the classic, repetitive lesson model developed by the late school principal and long-time educator Dr. Madeline Hunter. The traditional steps of the Hunter Model were designed for the explicit purpose of having students get it right the first time through. Erroneously some school administrators have used the model to analyze teaching performances. Please note that during her lifetime, Dr. Hunter was emphatic that it was never the intention that her model should be used as a teacher evaluation tool. Indeed, as a seasoned educator I am sure Hunter was aware that there are many great models of teaching other than her own, and that teaching is both an art and a science and therefore cannot be relegated to a simple formulaic 7 step checklist.
Principal Hunter developed her model using the science and knowledge of her time. I would classify this model as a standard behavioral technique of direct instruction, and modified operant conditioning, plus it has just the beginnings of information processing for recall. Hunter knew that the human brain lays down pathways as it learns. She wanted to assure that teachers gave learners little or no opportunity to “get it wrong” or lay down a neural pathways that were incorrect. Madeline Hunter did this because the research at the time indicated that relearning materials or skills took much more time than learning it right the first time.
Learning is increased by repetition, and as indicated earlier, learning new things lays down neural pathways so every time a skill is practiced the pathway is strengthened. Thus, if something is learned incorrectly or mislearned, the learner must first eradicate that which was wrong or wrongly done by relearning the material or skill correctly. Hunter’s model is designed to minimize mislearning events in the first place. A good example of the process of the tedium of unlearning would be a golf swing or stance that is incorrect, or a tennis swing that is ineffective. It takes twice as long to substitute good form for bad as ingrained physical responses tend to be deeply embedded due to frequent practice. Another common example might be when the position of frequently used objects in our environments are changed. How often do we go back to the original spot in the drawer or cabinet where something used to be stored before we remember the objects’ new position? Often it takes a long time for us to remember the new locations of common objects in their new places.
THE PROS AND CONS:-
The Hunter Model has a number of advantages, and an equal number of disadvantages. For instance, it is a great drill and practice model. The model is an excellent one for content or processes that benefit from lots of repetition. In that regard it is more readily suited for lessons which emphasize the lower tier of Bloom’s revised taxonomy — remembering (knowledge), understanding (comprehension), and applying (application). However, without considerable thought, revision, and artful manipulation, the model’s repetitive structure it is not appropriate for open-ended learning experiences, discovery learning sessions, or exploratory educational experiences, especially ones requiring divergent thinking skills, creative problem solving, or higher level thinking skills. Too, this model is not particularly well suited for use with gifted students. This population becomes easily bored with repetitious applications and steps, especially if they are not very challenging. Gifted students may also resent tightly, teacher-controlled learning settings where learning patterns are readily apparent from the very beginning. Instructors attempting to met the learning needs of gifted/creative learners may wish to explore one of the many models better suited to this population — see Models of teaching for additional suggestions.
THE 7 CLASSIC STEPS:- Within the main portions of the model — getting students ready to learn, instruction and checking for understanding, and independent practice — there are basically 7 steps and these are listed below. The steps in the beginning and ending portions can be varied and changed in sequence, the portion in the middle should not be changed. Ordering the beginning portions really depends on what you are doing as an anticipatory set as to whether you state your objectives and standards first, or if you start out with the anticipatory set and then make a statement of objectives and standards. Some variations include a review as the first step or as something incorporated into the anticipatory set. But users can also review, state objectives, and then have an anticipatory set as separate portions in the “getting students ready” portion.
The ending segment of the lesson also can be altered and depending on how controlling the instructor wants to be. Some folks believe that independent practice portion should be carefully monitored and then followed up with a closure activity or summary. Other educators like to offer closure for the formal lesson with an activity or ending discussion and then give independent practice as seat work or as homework.
HERE ARE THE DIFFERENT STEPS:-
GETTING STUDENTS SET TO LEARN — The first two elements are interchangeable. As stated earlier a distinctive review is optional. However, typically at the beginning of the lesson the teacher may briefly review previous material if it is related to the current lesson.
1) Stated Objectives — Letting students know where they are going. Giving them a sense of where they are headed belays the feeling of being a hostage in a learning experience. This step gives students direction and lets know what they are supposed to accomplish by the end of the lesson.
2) Anticipatory Set — Getting students ready and/or excited to accept instruction. (Please note that giving directions may be part of the procedural dialog of a lesson, but in and of themselves directions are NOT an Anticipatory Set !!!!! The key word here is “anticipatory” and that means doing something that creates a sense of anticipation and expectancy in the students — an activity, a game, a focused discussion, viewing a film or video clip, a field trip, or reflective exercise, etc.). This step prepares the learner to receive instruction much like operant conditioning. Direct instruction and checking for understanding — This part involves quickly assessing whether students understand what has just been demonstrated or presented.
3) Input Modeling/Modeled Practice — Making sure students get it right the first time depends on the knowledge, or processes to be shown or demonstrated by an expert, or by someone who has mastered what is to be demonstrated or shown. In addition to the instructor, prepared students can certainly model the focused skill, process or concept for peers. Instructors could also use a video for this portion.
4) Checking Understanding — Teachers watch students’ body language, ask questions, observe responses and interactions in order to determining whether or not students are making sense of the material as it is being presented. This portion takes place as instruction is being given. This is a whole class exercise, one in which the instructor carefully monitors the actions of the learners to make sure they are duplicating the skill, process, procedure, or exercise correctly.
5) Guided Practice—Takes place after instruction has been modeled and then checked for understanding to make sure students have it right! The question here is can they replicate what you want them to do correctly? Students are given the opportunity to apply or practice what they have just learned and receive immediate feedback at individual levels. Independent practice—These last two components can be interchanged.
6) Independent Practice — After students appear to understand the new material they are given the opportunity to further apply or practice using the new information. This may occur in class or as homework, but there should be a short period of time between instruction and practice and between practice and feedback. Essentially they are doing a learning task by themselves.
7) Closure — Bringing it all to a close — one more time. What did they accomplish? What did they learn? Go over it again. As you can see this model is highly repetitive — it is really a drill model and as I indicated earlier not conducive to support a number of high level thinking or feeling functions without some serious alteration or modifications.
AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8601 FOR QUESTION # 3 TO 5 CLICK HERE