AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8604 B.ED

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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8604 AUTUMN 2016 B.ED

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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8604 AUTUMN 2016 Q # 3

Q.3 EXPLAIN DIFFERENT TYPES OF RESEARCH ON THE BASIS OF PURPOSE AND EXPLAIN THEM WITH SUITABLE EXAMPLE. (20)
ANSWER:-
Research is systematic way to find out facts and knowledge as Kothari (2006) has analyzed that research is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment; the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem. However there are two types of researches one is by Purpose and other is by method. The type by purpose falls into three categorize such as Basic, Applied and Action Research.
BASIC RESEARCH:-
Basic research is mainly concerned with generalizations and the formulation of theory. It is driven by curiosity or interest in a subject. The main motivation is to expand man’s knowledge, not to create or invent something. Many scientists believe that basic research lays the foundation for the applied research that follows.

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STRENGTHS OF BASIC RESEARCH:
Therefore it has some merits and according to R. Stephen Berry (2011) basic research has following merits:-
1. Basic research is typically curiosity-driven and researchers develop their curiosity through their observations.
2. Basic research frequently leads to new insights into the essence of nature, the human mind, and the complex interactions between their elements.
3. It is usually unpredictable in terms of its course and outcomes.
4. It requires a special way of thinking that often combines seemingly unrelated facts and explores unknown fields necessary to make new discoveries. It is for this reason that basic research is frequently multidisciplinary in nature.
5. It is the verifiable which makes scientific knowledge a firmer kind of knowledge that anything else we have. This information includes not only data in databases, but also the information found in journals and textbooks, the interpretation of data, and the concepts that underlie these.

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LIMITATIONS OF BASIC RESEARCH:-
It is limited in nature as it never helps to make discoveries, create or invent anything. But it just expands one’s knowledge as it is a theoretical but not practical research.

APPLIED RESEARCH:- It involves practical problems of the society. It can be argued that the goal of applied research is to improve the human condition. An example of applied research could be a study to find out how the school feeding program has affected school enrollment rates in drought-prone districts. Applied research is increasingly gaining favor as it helps to address the problems facing the world today such as overpopulation, pollution, depletion of natural resources, drought, floods, declining moral standards and disease. As Anderson, G. J. (1998) also felt that researchers in this field try to find solutions to existing educational problems. The approach is much more utilitarian as it strives to find information that will directly influence practice.

STRENGTHS OF APPLIED RESEARCH:- It is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge’s sake and it is used to find solutions to everyday problems, cure illness, and develop innovative technologies.

ACTION RESEARCH:- It is a unique form of applied research and a reflective process of progressive problem solving. It is also called “practitioner research” because of the involvement of the actual practitioner in real life. Action implies that the practitioner is involved in the collection of data, analysis, and the interpretation of results. He or she is also involved in implementing results of the research and is thus well placed to judge the effectiveness of the interventions.

It is done simply by action, hence the name. It can also be undertaken by larger organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices, and knowledge of the environments within which they practice.

As (Reason & Bradbury, 2002) assessed that action research is an interactive inquiry process that balances problem solving actions implemented in a collaborative context with data-driven collaborative analysis or research to understand underlying causes enabling future predictions about personal and organizational change.

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STRENGTHS OF ACTION RESEARCH:-
1. It is a practical way for individuals to explore the nature of their practice and to improve it.
2. Action research encourages practitioners to become knowledge-makers, rather than merely knowledge-users.
3. Action research proceeds through a process of planning, action and reflection upon action. This can be thought of as an action-reflection ‘cycle’.

LIMITATIONS OF ACTION RESEARCH:-
1. Action researcher works in the hurly burly of her/his own practice. Monitoring closely, this practice as they act within it, demands space and time which, almost by definition, the practice does not give easily. It is therefore difficult to maintain rigor in data gathering and critique.
2. The process can be messy; as research proceeds, wider links are likely to be identified.
3. The result can’t be generalize usually as C.F. Hamilton (1981) also noted that this is true, but someone else’s ideas or conclusions can always be tried out by other persons in their own practice, to see if they work for them or not.

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Q.4 DEFINE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH. WHAT IS DIFFERENT EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN USED IN AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH? (20)
ANSWER:-
Experimental Research: Experimental research describes the process that a researcher undergoes of controlling certain variables and manipulating others to observe if the results of the experiment reflect that the manipulations directly caused the particular outcome. This type of research differs from a descriptive study, and another one of its important aspects is the use of random assignment. If you have decided that an experiment is the best approach to testing your hypothesis, then you need to design the experiment.
Experimental design refers to how participants are allocated to the different conditions (or IV groups) in an experiment.
Probably the commonest way to design an experiment in psychology is to divide the participants into two groups, the experimental group and the control group, and then introduce a change to the experimental group and not the control group.
The researcher must decide how he/she will allocate their sample to these IVs. For example, if there are 10 participants, will all 10 participants take part in both conditions (e.g. repeated measures) or will the participants be split in half and take part in only one condition each?

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THREE TYPES OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS ARE COMMONLY USED:-
1. INDEPENDENT MEASURES:- Different participants are used in each condition of the independent variable. This means that each condition of the experiment includes a different group of participants. This should be done by random allocation, which ensures that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to one group or the other.
Independent measures involves using two separate groups of participants; one in each condition. For example:

PRO:- Avoids order effects (such as practice or fat gue) as people participate in one condition only. If a person is involved in several conditions they may become bored, tired and fed up by the time they come to the second condition, or becoming wise to the requirements of the experiment!
CON: More people are needed than with the repeated measures design (i.e. more time consuming).
CON:- Differences between participants in the groups may affect results, for example; variations in age, sex or social background. These differences are known as participant variables (i.e. a type of extraneous variable).
CONTROL:- After the participants have been recruited, they should be randomly assigned to their groups. This should ensure the groups are similar, on average (reducing participant variables).

2. REPEATED MEASURES:- The same participants take part in each condition of the independent variable. This means that each condition of the experiment includes the same group of participants.
PRO: Fewer people are needed as they take part in all conditions (i.e. saves time).
PRO: As the same participants are used in each condition, participant variables (i.e., individual differences) are reduced.
CON:- There may be order effects. Order effects refer to the order of the conditions having an effect on the participants’ behavior. Performance in the second condition may be better because the participants know what to do (i.e. practice effect). Or their performance might be worse in the second condition because they are tired (i.e. fatigue effect). This limitation can be controlled using counterbalancing.
CONTROL:- To combat order effects the researcher counter balances the order of the conditions for the participants. Alternating the order in which participants perform in different conditions of an experiment.

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COUNTERBALANCING:-
Suppose we used a repeated measures design in which all of the participants first learned words in ‘loud noise’ and then learned it in ‘no noise’. We would expect the participants to show better learning in ‘no noise’ simply because of order effects, such as practice. However, a researcher can control for order effects using counterbalancing.

The sample would split into two groups experimental (A) and control (B). For example, group 1 does ‘A’ then ‘B’, group 2 does ‘B’ then ‘A’ this is to eliminate order effects. Although order effects occur for each participant, because they occur equally in both groups, they balance each other out in the results.

condition in terms of any important characteristic which might affect performance, e.g. sex, age, intelligence etc. One member of each matched pair must be randomly assigned to the experimental group and the other to the control group.

PRO: Reduces participant variables because the researcher has tried to pair up the participants so that each condition has people with similar abilities and characteristics.
PRO: Avoids order effects, and so counterbalancing is not necessary. Con: Very time-consuming trying to find closely matched pairs. Con: Impossible to match people exactly, unless identical twins!
CON: If one participant drops out you lose 2 PPs’ data.
CONTROL: Members of each pair should be randomly assigned to conditions. However, this does not solve all these problems.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN SUMMARY:- Experimental design refers to how participants are allocated to the different conditions (or IV groups) in an experiment. There are three types:

1. Independent measures / groups:-
Different participants are used in each condition of the independent variable.

2. Repeated measures:
The same participants take part in each condition of the independent variable.

3. Matched pairs:-
Each condition uses different participants, but they are matched in terms of important characteristics, e.g. sex, age, intelligence etc.

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Q.5 DEFINE DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH, WHAT ARE ITS MAJOR FORMS? STRENGTHEN YOUR ANSWER WITH THE EXAMPLE OF CASE STUDIES, CAUSAL COMPARATIVE STUDIES AND CORRELATION STUDIES. (20)
ANSWER:-
Descriptive Research: Sometimes an individual wants to know something about a group of people. Maybe the individual is a would-be senator and wants to know who they’re representing or a surveyor who is looking to see if there is a need for a mental health program.
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH:- is a study designed to depict the participants in an accurate way. More simply put, descriptive research is all about describing people who take part in the study.
MAJOR FORMS OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH:-
There are three main types of descriptive methods: observational methods, case-study methods and survey methods. This article will briefly describe each of these methods, their advantages, and their drawbacks. This may help you better understand research findings, whether reported in the mainstream media, or when reading a research study on your own.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8604 AUTUMN 2016

OBSERVATIONAL METHOD:-
With the observational method (sometimes referred to as field observation) animal and human behavior is closely observed. There are two main categories of the observational method — naturalistic observation and laboratory observation. The biggest advantage of the naturalistic method of research is that researchers view participants in their natural environments. This leads to greater ecological validity than laboratory observation, proponents say.
Ecological validity refers to the extent to which research can be used in real-life situations. Proponents of laboratory observation often suggest that due to more control in the laboratory, the results found when using laboratory observation are more meaningful than those obtained with naturalistic observation.
Laboratory observations are usually less time-consuming and cheaper than naturalistic observations. Of course, both naturalistic and laboratory observation are important in regard to the advancement of scientific knowledge.

CASE STUDY METHOD:-
Case study research involves an in-depth study of an individual or group of individuals. Case studies often lead to testable hypotheses and allow us to study rare phenomena. Case studies should not be used to determine cause and effect, and they have limited use for making accurate predictions. There are two serious problems with case studies — expectancy effects and atypical individuals. Expectancy effects include the experimenter’s underlying biases that might affect the actions taken while conducting research. These biases can lead to misrepresenting participants’ descriptions. Describing atypical individuals may lead to poor generalizations and detract from external validity.

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SURVEY METHOD:-
In survey method research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires. After participants answer the questions, researchers describe the responses given. In order for the survey to be both reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed properly. Questions should be written so they are clear and easy to comprehend. Another consideration when designing questions is whether to include open-ended, closed-ended, partially open-ended, or rating-scale questions (for a detailed discussion refer to Jackson, 2009). Advantages and disadvantages can be found with each type:-
Open-ended questions allow for a greater variety of responses from participants but are difficult to analyze statistically because the data must be coded or reduced in some manner.
Closed-ended questions are easy to analyze statistically, but they seriously limit the responses that participants can give. Many researchers prefer to use a Likert-type scale because it’s very easy to analyze statistically.

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2 Comments

  1. muhammad naveed says:

    AOA.how are you
    sir kindly remaining 5 question b post kar day.

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