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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 AUTUMN 2016

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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 AUTUMN 2016 B.ED LEVEL

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This first solved assignment code 8606 explains the culture and cultural diversity. It also explains influence of culture on social development.

Q.1: Define culture and analyze cultural diversity. Explain the influence of culture on social development.
Answer:- What is culture? Culture has been studied and defined in many ways by multiple scholars representing various disciplines. Adler (1997, 15) has synthesized many definitions of culture. She says that culture is:
• Something that is shared by all or almost all members of some social group.
• Something that the older members of the group try to pass on to the younger members.
• Something (as in the case of morals, laws and customs) that shapes behavior, or… structures one’s perception of the world.
Culture is more than arts, it is a framework to our lives. It affects our values, attitudes and behavior. On the other hand we are actors in our culture and affect it. According to Levo-Henriksson (1994), culture covers the everyday way of life as well as myths and value systems of society. Roos (1986) sees culture as a system of lifestyles and as a common dominator for lifestyles. Lifestyle reveals culture that is large and stiff wholeness, uniform, regular and like-minded in our lives. Lifestyles is a possible way to outline one’s life within the framework of culture.
According to Adler (1997, 15-16), culture, values, attitudes and behaviors in a society influence each other. Values can be defined as factors that are explicitly or implicitly desirable and that affects our decisions. Values do not need to be conscious, they can be also unconscious. The values we have are based on our culture. Attitudes express values and get us to act or to react in a certain way toward something. Attitudes are always there when people act even if they do not see them. There is no action without attitudes. Behavior can be described to be any form of human action. The behavior of individuals and groups influence the society’s culture. There is no culture in the society without people’s behavior.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 FOR B.ED STUDENTS.

EXAMPLES OF CULTURES: FINLAND AND NORTH CAROLINA:-
Finland is located in the Northern part of Europe. The Finnish culture has been influenced by the Swedish-Nordic, eastern European-Baltic and southern cultures, mainly the German, and most recently the Anglo-Saxon culture (Levo-Henriksson, 1994.) On the one hand, the Finnish culture can be described as rather homogenous; although there are regions with their own dialects and characteristics, they are strongly part of the main culture. On the other hand, there are also features of a multicultural society in Finland. There is a unique culture of Sami people in the northern part of Finland. Today there live also many people, e.g. refugees, who have emigrated from other countries including Somalia, Vietnam, Russia, former Yugoslavia, etc.

Sami people live in the northern part of Finland, and also in northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Russia. This area is called Lapland or Sami. Today, in Finland there are about 6,400 Sami people. The Sami lifestyle is often a mixture of nature’s seasonal cycles, traditions, and modern times. (Aikio et al.,

1994.) Because Sami people have lived as a minority in four countries, the Sami language has not been approved for use in schools until recently.
North Carolina is located on the east coast of the United States of America, to the north of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, and to the south of Virginia and Washington DC. North Carolina was discovered, explored, named, and settled by Englishmen. Powell (as cited in Crow and Tise, 1979) says: “North Carolina is the only one of the United States that can claim an Elizabethan background.” For a long time African-Americans and other Americans lived segregated lives in North Carolina. Following the civil rights movement in the 1960s and passage of the Civil Rights laws by the U.S. Congress, legal segregation ended in North Carolina. Today, people work, play, and go to school together. Although there are still some scattered problems, generally racial groups associate peacefully.

AUTUMN 2016 AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606

CULTURAL DIFFERENCES: AN ANALYTIC FRAMEWORK:-
Adler (1997) gives six dimensions that we can use to analyze cultural differences. She pays attention to the understanding of the nature of people; a person’s relationship to the external environment; the person’s relationship to other people; the primary mode of the activity; people’s orientation to space; and the person’s temporal orientation. These dimension are used to explore differences in cultures of Finns, Sami People, North Carolinians and Cherokee Indians, and to develop an understanding about cultures. In addition, we pay attention to language and communication styles as a dimension of cultural differences.

WHAT IS THE NATURE OF PEOPLE?
There are differences in cultures with respect to beliefs about the nature of people, that is, people may be seen as good or evil or both. Although it rather usual, at least in western societies, to see people as a mixture of good and evil, it also rather usual for people to fear the unknown. Thus, people may assume foreigners (who are unknown to them) to be evil people. (Adler, 1997.)

Finnish people are supposed to be modest and not talk about themselves. This aspect of the culture is illustrated by the Finnish saying “Modesty makes beautiful”. If a Finn is praised a lot, he becomes suspicious and cautious. Emotions run deep in a Finn and do not often come out. Negative emotions are expressed more often than positive ones. It is accepted to feel negatively; when you expect the worse, you cannot be disappointed. (Keltinkangas-Jarvinen, 1996.)
In Sami culture individuals are seen as a mixture of good and evil. Myths and shamanism is an important part of Sami culture. (Pentikainen, 1995.)

COMPLETE AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 1 CODE 8606 AUTUMN 2016

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