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2 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016

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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016 B.ED

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AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016 QUESTION # 4

Q. 4 DEFINE THE TERMS “EVALUATION” AND “STUDENTS EVALUATION” ALSO HIGHLIGHT THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDENTS’ EVALUATION. (20)
Answer:-
Evaluation: Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject’s merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. It can assist an organization, program, project or any other intervention or initiative to assess any aim, realizable concept/proposal, or any alternative, to help in decision-making; or to ascertain the degree of achievement or value in regard to the aim and objectives and results of any such action that has been completed. The primary purpose of evaluation, in addition to gaining insight into prior or existing initiatives, is to enable reflection and assist in the identification of future change. Evaluation is often used to characterize and appraise subjects of interest in a wide range of human enterprises, including the arts, criminal justice, foundations, non-profit organizations, government, health care, and other human services. It is long term and done at the end of a period of time.
STUDENTS EVALUATION IN AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016
STUDENTS EVALUATION:-
Student evaluation is an assessment by learners of the service provided by the institution, be it solely of the classroom experience or of all aspects of the learning experience. In some countries, such as the United States and Canada, ‘student evaluation’ has the same meaning as assessment of students’ learning.
IMPORTANCE OF STUDENTS’ EVALUATION:-
Assessment is an integral part of instruction, as it determines whether or not the goals of education are being met. Assessment affects decisions about grades, placement, advancement, instructional needs, curriculum, and, in some cases, funding. Assessment inspire us to ask these hard questions: “Are we teaching what we think we are teaching?” “Are students learning what they are supposed to be learning?” “Is there a way to teach the subject better, thereby promoting better learning?” Today’s students need to know not only the basic reading and arithmetic skills, but also skills that will allow them to face a world that is continually changing. They must be able to think critically, to analyze, and to make inferences. Changes in the skills base and knowledge our students need require new learning goals; these new learning goals change the relationship between assessment and instruction. Teachers need to take an active role in making decisions about the purpose of assessment and the content that is being assessed. When assessment works best, it does the following:-

BEST ASSESSMENT DISCUSSION UNDER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016

PROVIDES DIAGNOSTIC FEEDBACK:-
• What is the student’s knowledge base?
• What is the student’s performance base?
• What are the student’s needs?
• What has to be taught?

HELPS EDUCATORS SET STANDARDS:-
• What performance demonstrates understanding?
• What performance demonstrates knowledge?
• What performance demonstrates mastery?

EVALUATES PROGRESS:-
• How is the student doing?
• What teaching methods or approaches are most effective?
• What changes or modifications to a lesson are needed to help the student?

RELATES TO A STUDENT’S PROGRESS:-
• What has the student learned?
• Can the student talk about the new knowledge?
• Can the student demonstrate and use the new skills in other projects?

MOTIVATES PERFORMANCE:-
For student self-evaluation:-
• Now that I’m in charge of my learning, how am I doing?
• Now that I know how I’m doing, how can I do better?
• What else would I like to learn?

FOR TEACHER SELF-EVALUATION:-
• What is working for the students?
• What can I do to help the students more?
• In what direction should we go next?

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016 QUESTION # 5

Q. 5 DISCUSS DIFFERENT KINDS OF AUDIO VISUAL AIDS. (20)
Answer:-
Introduction: Audio visual material must be seen in their relationship to teaching as a whole and to the learning process as a whole, until the teacher understands the relationship between audio visual material and teaching learning process. Audio visual materials are produced, distributed and used as planned components of educational programs. It helps the process of learning that is motivation, classification and stimulation. A.v. aids are multi sensory materials which motivate and stimulate the individual. It makes dynamic learning experience more concrete realistic and clarity. It provides significant gains in thinking and reasoning.
DEFINITIONS:-
1. According to Kinder S. James: Audio visual aids are any device which can be used to make the learning experience more concrete, more realistic and more dynamic.
2. According to Burton: audio visual aids are those sensory objects or images which initiate or stimulate and reinforce learning.
3. According to Carter.v.Good: audio visual aids are those aids which help in completing the triangular process of learning that is motivation, classification and stimulation.
4. Purposes:-
• To supplement and enrich teachers own teaching to make teaching-learning more concrete.
• To serve an instructional role in itself.
• To create interest among the group.
• To make teaching as an effective process.

ADVANTAGES:-
1. A.V.Aids helps in effective perceptual and conceptual learning.
2. A.V.Aids helpful in capturing and sustaining attention of students.
3. A.V.Aids arouses interest and motivates students to learn.
4. A.V.Aids is helpful in new learning.
5. A.V.Aids helps in saving energy and time of both the teacher’s and students.
6. A.V.Aids provides near realistic experience.
7. A.V.Aids can meet individual demands.
8. A.V.Aids is useful in for education of masses.

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD TEACHING AIDS IN AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD TEACHING AIDS:-
TEACHING AIDS SHOULD BE:-
• Meaningful and purposeful
• Motivates the learners
• Accurate in every aspect
• Simple and cheap
• Improvised
• Large in size
• Up-to-date
• Easily portable

ACCORDING TO INTELLECTUAL LEVEL OF STUDENTS SOURCES OF A.V.AIDS:-
• Government
• Educational institutions
• Professional organizations
• Non-governmental organizations
• Voluntary organizations(national and international)
• Commercial producers of educational material
• Commercial advertisement
• In nursing organizations like TNAI, INC…etc.

CLASSIFICATION OF A.V.AIDS:- Various classifications are given for Audio visual aids according to the type of projection by various authors.
I) Classification of A.V.Aids
I) Audio aids:- Audio materials are those which can be heard. Ex: – radio, tape recorder, walkman, Headphones.
II) Visual aids: these are helpful to visualize the things. Ex:- graphic aids, 3d-aids, display boards, and print material.
III) Audio visual aids: these aids can be heard and seen simultaneously. Ex: – projected aids, TV, films.

II) Classification of A.V.Aids
I) Simple A.V.Aids: It includes graphic aids, display boards, 3d-aids, print material…etc.
II) Sophisticated A.V.Aids: includes audio-visual aids.

FOLLOWED THESE PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE USE OF A.V AIDS IN AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016

PRINCIPLES TO BE FOLLOWED FOR THE EFFECTIVE USE OF A.V.AIDS:-
• Audio visual materials should function as an integral part of the educational program.
• A.v. aids should be centralized, under specialized direction and leadership in educational programs.
• An advisory committee consisting of representative from all areas of curriculum should be appointed to assist in selection and coordination of a.v. materials.
• An education program should be flexible.
• A.v. material should be carefully located to eliminate duplication, easy accessibility and convenient use.
• A.v. material should be available whenever and wherever they needed for effective utilization as an integral part of curriculum.
• Budget appropriations should be made regularly for a.v. education programs.
• Periodic evaluation to be done to assess the function of, utilization and expenditure of the program.

PROJECTED A.V. AIDS: OVER HEAD PROJECTOR:- The overhead projector is the most used in all a.v. aids. It projects transparencies with brilliant screen images suitable for use in a lighted room. The teacher can write or draw diagrams on the transparency while he teaches; these are projected simultaneously on the screen by the OHP.

DURING PRESENTATION:-
• Keep the screen above the heads of the participants.
• Keep the screen in full view of participants
• Make sure you are not blocking any ones view when presenting.
• Darken the room appropriately by blocking out sunshine and dimming nearby.
• Turn the screen off between slides if you are going to talk for more than two.
• Talk to the audience, not to the screen

OVER HEAD TRANSPARENCIES: – Transparencies are popular instructional medium. They are simple to prepare and easy to prepare and easy to operate with the overhead projector which is light weight. A 1090 inches sheet with printed, written or drawn material is placed on the platform of the projector and a large image is projected on a screen behind you. The projector is used from near to the front of the room with the teacher standing or sitting beside, facing the student.

THE OPAQUE PROJECTOR: – Opaque projector is the only projector on which you can project a variety of materials ex: – book pages, objects, coins, postcards, or any other similar flat material that is non-transparent. The opaque projector will project and simultaneously enlarge, directly from the originals, printed matter, all kinds of written or pictorial matter in any sequence derived by the teacher. It requires a dark room, as projector is large and not reality movables.
SLIDE PROJECTOR:- A slide is a small piece of transparent material on which a single pictorial image or scene or graphic image has been photographed or reproduced otherwise. Slides are a form of projected media that are easy to prepare. They are still pictures on positive film which you can process and mount individually yourself or send to a film laboratory. The standard size of the slides is 2 “X 2 “any 35mm camera will make satisfactory slides.
Types of slides
1. Photographic slides: 2″ X 2″ 3″ X4” a) Black and white b) Colored
2. Handmade slides: can be made with a) Acetate sheet b) Cellophane c) Etched glass d) Plain glass e) Lumarith

Slides can be made from photographs and pictures by teachers and pupils taking photographs and snapshots when they go on fieldtrips for historical, geographical, literacy or scientific excursions. The arrangement of slides in proper sequence, according to the topic discussed, is an important aspect of teaching with them.
FILMSTRIPS:- Film strips are sequence of transparent still pictures with individual frames on 35mm film. A tap recorded narration can be synchronized with film strip. Each strip contains from 12 to 18 or more pictures. It is a fixed sequence of related stills on a roll of 35mm film or 8mm film.
TYPES OF FILMSTRIP:
1) Discussion filmstrip: it is continuous strip of film consisting of individual frames arranged in sequence usually with explanatory titles.
2) Sound slide film: it is similar to filmstrip but instead of explanatory titles or spoken discussion recorded explanation is audible, which is synchronized with the pictures.

NON PROJECTED A.V. AIDS DISCUSSIONS UNDER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016

NON PROJECTED A.V. AIDS:
GRAPHIC AIDS:
It is a combination of graphic and pictorial material designed for the orderly and logical visualizing of relationships between key facts and ideas ex: comparisons, relative amounts developments, processes, classification or organization. It includes the following

CHARTS:-
INTRODUCTION:- These visual symbols used for summarizing, comparing, contrasting or performing other services in explaining subject matter. A chart is a combination of pictorial, graphic, numerical or vertical material, which presents a clear summary.
DEFINITION: Chart is defined as a visual aid which depicts pictorial and written key information in systematic way to summarize, compare, ex: anatomical charts and figure, diagrams etc.

PURPOSES:-
• To visualize an item, it is otherwise difficult to explain only in words.
• To highlight important points.
• To provide outline for materials covered in presentation.
• To show continuity in process.
• For creating problems and stimulating thinking.
• For showing development of structure.

TYPES OF CHARTS FOR B.ED STUDENTS FOR AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 SPRING 2017

TYPES OF CHARTS:-
• Narrative chart: Arrangement of facts and ideas for expressing the events in the process or development of a significant issue to its point of resolution or we can show an improvement over a period of years.
• The cause and effective chart: Arrangement of facts and ideas for expressing the relationship between rights and responsibilities or between a complex of conditions and change or conflict.
• The chain chart: arrangement of facts and ideas for expressing transitions or cycles.

THE EVOLUTION CHART:- facts and ideas for expressing changes in specific items from beginning data and its projections in to future.
STRIP TEASE CHART:- it enables speaker to present the information step by It increases the interest and imagination of the audience. The information on the chart is covered with thin paper strips to which it has been applied either by wax, tape or sticky substance or pins. As the speaker wishes to visually reinforce a point with words or symbols, he removes the appropriate strip or paper. It produces interest. It increases learning and aids recall.
PULL CHART:- it consists of written messages which are hidden by strips of thick paper. The message can be shown to the viewer, one after another by6 pulling out the concealing strips.
FLOW CHART:- diagrams used to show organizational elements or administrative or functional relationships. In this chart lines, rectangles, circles, are connected by lines showing the directional flow.
TABULATION CHART:- it shows the schedule of an activity or of an individual ex: time-table of a class. These are very valuable aid in the teaching situation where breakdown of a fact or a statement is to be listed. Also it is a useful aid for showing points of comparison, distinction, and contrasts between two or more things. While making the table charts the following points must be kept in the mind. The chart should be 50 X 75 cm or more in size. The chart should be captioned in bold letters. The vertical columns should be filled in short phrases rather than complete sentences.
FLIP CHART:-a set of charts related to specific topic have been tagged together and hang on a supporting stand. The individual charts will carry a series of related materials or messages in sequence. The silent points of specific topic will be presented.
PIE CHART:-a circle will be drawn and divisions will be made into different sections, each section will be coded differently and code key will be given at right corner of the chart as legend. The circumference is divided into suitable sections. It is relevant for showing the component part.
FLASH CARDS
Definition: ”
Flash cards are a set of pictured paper cards of varying sizes that are flashed one by one in a logical sequence.”
“Flash cards can be self made or commercially prepared and are made up of chart or drawing paper, plane paper using colors or ink on them for drawings.”

POSTERS
Definition: “Posters are the graphic aids with short quick and typical messages with attention capturing paintings.”
PURPOSES:-
• To provide general motivation.
• To create an esthetic or atmospheric effect.
• To communicate a more general idea. To thrust the message for leading to action.
• For the class room and community.

GRAPHS FOR AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016

GRAPHS
DEFINITION:- Graphs are the visual teaching aids for presenting statistical data and contrasting the trends or changes of certain attributes.

TYPES:-
PIE GRAPH:-
• These are called as circle diagram. The data are presented thorough the sections of portions of a circle.
• In determining the circumference of a circle we have to take in to consideration a quantity known as pie.
• The surface area of a circle is to cover 360 degree.
• The total frequencies or value us equated to 360 degree and then the angles corresponding to component parts are calculated.
• After determining their angle, the required sectors in the circle are drawn.

BAR GRAPH:- The graphic presentation extends the scale horizontally along the length of bars. Each bar must be of the same width, height of the bar over a period represents the corresponding time of the variable. Graphs are available in 2 forms that is vertical and horizontal

LINE GRAPH:- To show the trends and relationships ex: single line shows the relation and the variation in the quantity. Quantitative data are plotted or when the data is continuous. The concepts are represented with the help of lines drawn either horizontally or vertically. The plotted points are connected to one another, instead of the base thus producing the curve.

PICTORIAL GRAPH:- It is an outstanding method of graphic representation. Pictures are used for the expression of ideal; they are more attractive and easily understood. Vivid pictures will be used to create rapid association with the graphic message; each visual symbol may be used to indicate quantity.

MAPS
Definition: A map is a graphic aid representing the proportionately as a diagram, the surface of the earth, world or parts thereof. It conveys the message by lines, symbols, words and colors.
TYPES OF MAPS:
• Political maps: these maps show political divisions of the world, a continent, a nation.
• Physical maps: shows the physical contour of a place, area, and region.
• Relief maps: it shows the actual elevations and depressions in a place, area, and region. a
• Weather maps: shows the amount of rains, temperature extremes, humidity in an area, region country.
• Population maps: shows the distribution of population in various parts of region, country.
• Picture or tourist maps: shows historical spots monumental sites.etc..
• Road maps: shows the roads of a region connecting various parts and points together.
• Railway maps: shows the railway links between various points.
• Air maps: shows the air routes between various points.
• Sea root maps: shows the sea routes between various sea ports

CARTOONS
The word cartoon has various meanings, based on several very different forms of visual art and illustration. The term has evolved over time. The original meaning was in fine art, and there cartoon meant a preparatory drawing for a piece of art such as a painting.

DEFINITION:- A cartoon is humorous caricature which gives a subtle message. In a cartoon the features of objects and people are exaggerated along with generally recognized symbols.

NEWS PAPERS
It can furnish health messages in local languages which cancan reach to the public easily. The information will be available in low cost, easy to read and understand simple language .the people may learn to read and interpret the contents along with pictures to enhance easy grasping.

COMIC STRIPS:-
Definition: A comic strip is the graphic depiction in a series of pictures or sketches of some character and events full of action. This medium of communication is found very interesting and exciting by children.

3D AIDS UNDER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016

3- DIMENTIONAL AIDS

MODELS:-
Definition: a model is a recognizable representation of a real thing three dimensionally, that is height, width, and depth is felt as reality.

TYPES OF MODELS:
1. Solid models: it is the replica of an original thing made with some suitable material like clay, plaster of Paris, wood, iron etc. to show the external parts of the things. Ex: globe, clay model of human and animal.
2. Cutaway and x-ray models: are the replicas of the original things to show internal parts of a thing. Cross sectional models are difficult to make in the class room or institutions as they require expertise to construct them. Ex: cross sectional model of human body.
3. Working models: these models are either actual working things or their miniature replicas. For illustrating an operation. Ex: a motor, a generator.
4. Sand models: made by using sand, clay, saw dust, ex: a tribal village, a forest area.

OBJECTS AND SPECIMENS
Definition: A collection of real things for instructional use refers to objects. A specimen is a sample of the real object or a material. Using objects and specimens: while using the specimen and objects as teaching aids, a teacher must keep the following points in her mind.
• Plan your teaching with certain simple and direct observations of the object or specimen being referred to.
• Ask questions from the students to elicit more details of the features of the object or specimen under observation.
• Clarify and emphasize important structural details of the object or specimen under observation
• Provide review and practice to make learning permanent.
EXHIBITIONS:-
Many times in the school, a department of the school or a class put up their work for showing it to the people outside the school, and such a show called exhibitions. The pieces of work done by the students for an exhibition are called exhibits.
REQUISITES FOR EXHIBITION:-
• The exhibition should have a central theme with a few sub themes to focus attention to a particular concept
• The exhibits should be clean , labeled properly
• The concepts of contrast in color and size should be used for lying out the exhibitions
• The exhibits should be so placed so the most visitors, can see them
• The place and exhibits should be well lighted
• To capture attention and interest of visitors, both motion and sound should be utilized
• The exhibition should have some exhibits with operative mechanism such as switches, handles, to be operated by the visitors to observe some happenings.
• The exhibition should include lot of demonstrations as they involve deeply the students and the visitors
• The exhibition should be able to relate various subjects’ areas to provide integrated learning.

MUSEUMS:-
DEFINITION:- A museum is a building displaying a collection of historical relics, antiques, curiosities, works of arts, works of science, literature and other artifacts of general interest. Museums can be useful both for public education and specific class room instructions.
SETTING UP SCHOOL MUSEUM:-
• School should have enough space
• Take the help of students, collect old and new objects and articles
• Accept donations from various organizations who donates the articles
• Students can be guided to prepare the exhibits
• All the collected and prepared articles should be displayed and labeled
• A detailed report book should be maintained giving a brief description of each museum pieces
• The museum rooms should be well lighted
• It should be cleaned and maintained timely.

DIORAMAS:
DEFINITIONS:- A diorama is a three dimensional arrangement of related objects, models, and cut outs to illustrate a central theme or concept. The objects and models are generally placed in a big box or show case with a glass covering and background printed with a shade or a scene. Ex: a harvest scene, a planting scene etc.
MOCK UPS:- It emphasizes the functional relationship between the device reality and its workability. Certain element of the original reality is emphasized to make it more meaningful for the purpose of instruction. In common usage, a mockup is a scale model of a structure or device, usually used for teaching, demonstration, testing a design, etc. Mockups are also used in the Consumer goods industry, as part of the product development process, when the size, impression and/or artworks have to be tested and approved. Mockup is also a frequently used term when talking about an early layout or sketch of a Web site or GUI program. Ex: An artificial kidney to demonstrate dialysis.
MOULAGE
Mould can be made up of plastic material to stimulate some life in objects. ex: body which shows evidence of trauma, infection, disease, surgical intervention.
IMAGE PERSPECTIVES MOULAGE PROCESS (SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 AUTUMN 2016)

The basic material we use to create our soft tissue injuries is very inexpensive; it costs only pennies per simulation. If someone walks off with a simulation it can be recreated in a matter of minutes! You are not limited to mass-produced latex or plastic “one-size-fits-all injuries”. You determine the type, scope and Size of the injuries and create as many as you wish, in whatever size you need. Our simulations can be handled and bandaged, with care, as you would a real injury. The simulations will not shift and/or be damaged. When bandages are removed, the injury simulation will remain intact. The simulations can be made liquid-proof, and with care – reusable!

PUPPETS
One of the old and popular arts in Indian villages is puppetry. Puppetry is an education cum entertaining aid in which puppets manipulated by the performer is a person termed as a characters in a story to be depicted.
DEFINITION:- A puppet is a manipulative doll dressed as a character and the performer is a person termed as a puppeteer. A good puppeteer has to blend his art with dramatization to produce the desired effect. It is used as an effective teaching aid for languages and social sciences.

TYPES OF PUPPETS:-
1. String or marionettes puppets:-Marionettes consist of puppets with hinged body parts which are controlled by nine strings produces required movements in the puppet. These puppets are mainly manipulated by professional puppeteers.
2. Stick puppets: – stick puppet are the painted cutouts attached by sticks. The actions of these puppets are manipulated by the teacher and students by hiding behind a screen so that only puppets are visible to the audience or the class.
3. Shadow puppets: – shadow puppets are silhouettes of cardboard which produce shadows on white screen. The motion of these silhouettes is manipulated by the teacher and students.
4. Finger of hand puppet: – Hand puppets are round balls painted as heads with overflowing colorful costumes. These are worn on fingers which operate their movements. These are operated from below the stage.

DISPLAY BOARDS / CHALK BOARD
DEFINITION:- A chalkboard or blackboard is a reusable writing surface on which text or drawings are made with chalk or other erasable markers. Blackboards were originally made of smooth, thin sheets of black or dark grey slate stone. Modern versions are often green or brown and are thus sometimes called a green board or brown board instead.
FLANNEL BOARD
Sometimes called a flannel graph. This teaching tool is called by different names: Visual Board, Frick Board, Slap Board, Felt Board, Choreograph, Video graph Flannel graph is a storytelling system that uses a board covered with flannel fabric, usually resting on an easel. It is very similar to Fuzzy felt, although its primary use is as a storytelling medium, rather than as a toy
BULLETIN BOARD
DEFINITION It is a soft board which will hold pins or tags almost suitable. Simple device placed either indoor or outdoor. Items generally displayed are photographs, publications, posters, newspaper cut outs.

PEG BOARD
It is a type of board which contains small holes to fix certain letters into the holes which is used especially in the offices to display certain items, name of the personal or faculty member.

MAGNETIC BOARDS
It is a framed iron sheet carrying porcelain coating in some dark color generally black or green. It can be used to display pictures, cutouts and light objects with disc magnets or magnetic holders.

AUDITORY AIDS
These are also an effective aid, usually radios, recorders, gram phones come under this category. Using a record player for teaching:-
• A record player can be used in the following ways in the actual class room situation
• A record player can be used to supplement a lesson.
• A record player can be used for an appreciation lesson in music.
• A record player can be used for an appreciation lesson in literature.
• A record player can be used for students to acquire the singing ability, deliver a speech properly, and recite a poem in the right way.
• The player can be used to end or conclude a lesson; introduce a lesson and review a lesson.
• A record player can be used for physical exercises accompanied with music.

TAPE RECORDER:-
A tape recorder is a portable electronic gadget to record, reproduce, erase and rerecord sound on a magnetic tape. This device can be used without much fuss by anybody by operating the following press buttons attached to the recorder, viz, stop, play, wind, rewind, record, pause, and eject.

ACTIVITY AIDS:-
There are certain learning situations in which student participation through direct experiences can be easily incorporated, these are called activity aids. The activity teaching aids are really of great value as they put students in a role of active seekers of knowledge. There are five important activity teaching aids, which are listed below:-
1) Field trips
2) Demonstrations
3) Experiments
4) Dramatizations

FIELD TRIPS
DEANITIONS:-
According to Hedger ken Field trip may be defined as “an educational procedure by which the student studies firsthand objects and materials in their natural environment.”

TYPES OF FIELD TRIPS: –
Depending on the place of visit and its duration, field trips are mainly of the following four types, namely:-a) Local school trips b) Community trip c) Educational trips d) The natural hunt

DEMONSTRATIONS:-
Demonstration method is a concrete visual aid, because of its wide use in the teaching of nurses. In nursing education, it is used for this purpose and also for clinics, conferences, laboratory classes, symposia, autopsies, and teaching of health to patients. The demonstration method teaches by explanation and exhibition. In short, it is a performance to show a process or activity to others. When a teacher demonstrates, students observe and imitate to learn.

EXPERIMENT:-
An experiment is a learning activity in which students collect and interpret observations using measuring instruments to reach some conclusions. In science subjects experiments are used invariably used as instructional aid as they encourage learning by doing. While giving a lesson on an experiment, the teacher should organize the instruction so as to make the students aware of the following steps of the experiments:-
1) Objectives of the experiments
2) Apparatus required
3) Procedure or methodology
4) Observations of data
5) Computation (totaling) of the observations made.
6) Results or conclusion
7) Precautions
8) Ideas for future work
The student performs the experiment and writes a report on it. Showing the cause and effect relationship.

DRAMATIZATION:-
Dramatization is a very potent method of keeping the class room instruction lively and interesting. When a teacher dramatizes a lesson, the students become both the spectators and participants. This makes learning easy and permanents.
TYPES OF DRAMATIZATIONS SUITABLE FOR CLASS ROOM INSTRUCTION:-
1) Role-play 2) Play lets 3) Pageant 4) Pantomime 5) Tableaux

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 8601 QUESTION # 1 TO 3 CLICK HERE

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