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OPERATING SYSTEM:- An operating system (OS) is software that manages hardware sources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is an essential component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently make a system call to an OS function or be interrupted by it. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to super-computers and web servers. Examples of popular modern operating systems include Android, BSD, iOS Linux, OS X ONX, Microsoft Windows, Windows Phone, and IBM zJOS. All these, except Windows, Windows Phone and i/OS, share roots in UNIX.

EVOLUTION OF UNIX SYSTEMS:- UNIX was originally written in assembly language. Ken Thompson wrote B, mainly based on BCI’L based on his experience in the MULTICS project. B was replaced by C, and Unix, rewritten in C, developed into a large, complex family of inter-related operating systems which have been influential in every modern operating system.
The UNIX-like family is a diverse group of operating systems, with several major sub-categories including System V BSD, and Linux. The name “UNIX” is a trademark of The Oncn Group which licenses it for use with any operating system that has been shown to conform to their definitions. “UNIX-like” is commonly used to refer to the large set of operating systems which resemble the original UNIX. Unix-like systems run on a wide variety of computer architectures. They are used heavily for servers in business, as well as workstations in academic and engineering environments. Free UNIX variants, such as Linux and BSD, are popular in these areas.
Four operating systems are certified by The Open Group (holder of the Unix trademark) as Unix. HP’s HP-UX and IBM’s AIX are both descendants of the original System V Unix and are designed to run only on their respective vendor’s hardware. In contrast, Sun Microsystems’s Solaris Operating System can run on multiple types of hardware, including x86 and Spar servers, and PCs. Apple’s OS X a replacement for Apple’s earlier (non-Unix) Mac OS, is a hybrid kernel-based BSD variant derived from NcXTSTEP. Mach and FrecBSD.
Unix interoperability was sought by establishing the POSIX standard. The POSIX standard can be applied to any operating system, although it was originally created for various Unix variants. BSD and its descendants
The first server for the World Wide Web ran on Next STEP, based on BSD. A subgroup of the UNIX family is the Berkeley Software Distribution family, which includes FreeBSD, Net BSD, and Open BSD. These operating systems are most commonly found on web servers although they can also function as a personal computer OS. The Internet owes much of its existence to BSD, as many of the protocols now commonly used by computers to connect, send and receive data over a network were widely implemented and refined in BSD. The World Wide Web was also first demonstrated on a number of computers running an OS based on BSD called Next Step.
BSD has its roots in UNIX. In 1974, University of California, Berkeley installed its first UNIX system. Over time, students and staff in the computer science department there began adding new programs to make things easier, such as text editors. When Berkeley received new VAX computers in 1978 with UNIX installed, the school’s undergraduates modified UNIX even more in order to take advantage of the computer’s hardware possibilities. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the US Department of Defense took interest, and decided to fund the project. Many schools, corporations, and government organizations took notice and started to use Berkeley’s version of UNIX instead of the official one distributed by AT&T.
Steve Jobs, upon leaving Apple Inc. in 1985, formed NeXT Inc., a company that manufactured high-end computers running on a variation of BSD called Next STEP. One of these computers was used by nm 13erners-Lee as the first web server to create the World Wide Web.
Developers like Keith Bostic encouraged the project to replace any non-free code that originated with Bell Labs. Once this was done, however, AT&T sued. Eventually, after two years of legal disputes, the BSD project came out ahead and spawned a number of free derivatives, such as FreeBSD and NetBSD. OS X
THE STANDARD USER INTERFACE OF OS X:- OS X (formerly “Mae OS X”) is a line of open core graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc., the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently shipping Macintosh computers. OS X is the successor to the original Mac OS, which had been Apple’s primary operating system since 1984. Unlike its predecessor, OS X is a UNIX operating system built on technology that had been developed at NeXT through the second half of the 1980s and up until Apple purchased the company in early 1997. The operating system was first released in 1999 as Mac OS X Server 1.0, with a desktop-oriented version (Mac OS X v10.0 “Cheetah”) following in March 2001. Since then, six more distinct “client” and “server” editions of OS X have been released, until the two were merged in OS X 10.7 “Lion”. The most recent version is OS X 10.9 “Mavericks” which was announced on June 10, 2013, and released on October 22, 2013. Releases of OS X v10.0 through v10.8 are named afterbig cats. Starting with v10.9, “Mavericks”, OS X versions are named after inspirational places in California.
Prior to its merging with OS X, the server edition — OS X Server — was architecturally identical to its desktop counterpart and usually ran on Apple’s line of Macintosh server hardware. OS X Server included work group management and administration software tools that provide simplified access to key network services, including a mail transfer agent, a Samba server, anLDAP server, a domain name server, and others. With Mae OS X v10.7 Lion, all server aspects of Mac OS X Server have been integrated into the client version and the product re-branded as “OS X” (dropping “Mac” from the name). The server tools are now offered as an application.
Linux and GNU Linux (or GNU/Linux) is a Unix-like operating system that was developed without any actual Unix code, unlike BSD and its variants. Linux can be used on a wide range of devices from supercomputers to wristwatches. The Linux kernel is released under an open source license, so anyone can read and modify its code. It has been modified to run on a large variety of electronics. Although estimates suggest that Linux is used on 1.82% of all personal computers, it has been widely adopted for use in servers and embedded systems (such as cell phones). Linux has superseded Unix in most places,[which?] and is used on the 10 most powerful supercomputers in the world. The Linux kernel is used in some popular distributions, such as Red Flat, Dcbian Ubuntu, Linux Mint and Google’s Android.
The GNU project is a mass collaboration of programmers who seek to create a completely free and open operating system that was similar to Unix but with completely original code. It was started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, and is responsible for many of the parts of most Linux variants. Thousands of pieces of software for virtually every operating system are licensed under the GNU General Public License. Meanwhile, the Linux kernel began as a side project of Linus Torvalds a university student from Finland. In 1991, Torvalds began work on it, and posted information about his project on a newsgroup for computer students and programmers. He received a wave of support and volunteers who ended up creating a full-fledged kernel. Programmers from GNU took notice, and members of both projects worked to integrate the finished GNU parts with the Linux kernel in order to create a full-fledged operating system. Google Chromium OS
Chromium is an operating system based on the Linux kernel and designed by Google. Since Chromium OS targets computer users who spend most of their time on the Internet, it is mainly a web browser with limited ability to run local applications, though it has a built-in file manager and media player. Instead, it relies on Internet applications (or Web apps) used in the web browser to accomplish tasks such as word processing. Chromium OS differs from Chrome OS in that Chromium is open-source and used primarily by developers whereas Chrome OS is the operating system shipped out in Chrome books. Microsoft Windows
The USB flash drive Microsoft Windows is a family of proprietary operating systems designed by Microsoft and primarily targeted to Intel architecture based computers, with an estimated 88.9 percent total usage share on Web connected computers. The newest version is Windows 8.1 for workstations and Windows Server 2012 R2 for servers. Windows 7 recently overtook Windows XP as most used OS.
Microsoft Windows originated in 1985 as an operating environment running on top of MS-DOS which was the standard operating system shipped on most Intel architecture personal computers at the time. In 1995, Windows 95 was released which only used MS-DOS as a bootstrap. For backwards compatibility, Win9x could run real-mode MS-DOS and 16 bits Windows 3.x 1241 drivers. Li ing2AnA, released in 2000, was the last version in the Win9x family. Later versions have all been based on the Windows NT kernel. Current client versions of Windows run on IA-32, x86-64 and 32-bit ARM microprocessors. In addition Itanium is still supported in older server version Windows Server 2008 R2. In the past, Windows NT supported additional architectures.
Server editions of Windows are widely used. In recent years, Microsoft has expended significant capital in an effort to promote the use of Windows as a server operating system. However, Windows’ usage on servers is not as widespread as on personal computers, as Windows competes against Linux and BSD for server market share.
Other There have been many operating systems that were significant in their day but are no longer so, such as AmigaOS; OS/2from IBM and Microsoft; Mac OS, the non-Unix precursor to Apple’s Mac OS X; BeOS; XTS-300; RISC OS; MorphOS; Haiku;BareMetal and Free Mint. Some are still used in niche markets and continue to be developed as minority platforms for enthusiast communities and specialist applications. Open VMS formerly from DEC, is still under active development I lewlett-Packard. Yet other operating systems are used almost exclusively in academia, for operating systems education or to do research on operating system concepts. A typical example of a system that fulfills both roles is MINIX, while for example Singularity is used purely for research. Other operating systems have failed to win significant market share, but have introduced innovations that have influenced mainstream operating systems, not least Bell Labs’ Plan 9. Hybrid operating system Console OS runs natively on Intel’s x86 architecture, so is not an emulator, runs Windows as usual and with a toggle in 10 seconds can uses real Android apps. Console OS can runs in PC and Intel Tablet with Windows


Answer:-a) Basic elements of a communication system:-The communication system basically deals with the transmission of information from one point to another using the well-defined steps which are carried out in sequential manner. The system for data transmission makes use of the sender and destination address, In this other so many elements are also there that allows it to transfer data from one set of point to another set of point after dividing the elements of communication system in groups and these interface elements acts as the main component for data communication and all these interface elements are given below:-
INFORMATION SOURCE:- The communication system which we are using is act as the main communication source for data transmission between two machines. Firstly, the source of data code is generated either in numeric forth or in character form such that it should be in encrypted manner that does not provide information access to unknown or unauthorized user, this unit uses the specialized tools and utilities for the generation of messages which is to be transmitted over the communication channel such that the signal can either be analog or digital in nature and it is converted from one form to another according to the compatibility of transmission medium that represents the signal nature. Moreover, the data source which is generated using the encoder has filter component that refines the data packets and removes data redundancy using the normalization technique.
INPUT TRANSDUCER:- As we know that basic work of the transducer is to convert one form of energy into another form that can be electrical in nature. Let us consider that input source signal is non- electrical in nature then you have to first convert these signals in time varying electrical signal. For example- the microphone which we use in seminars and presentations converts message information into sound waves which is electrical in nature. Once you have successfully convened it into electrical signals then data compression technique is used which will compress data packets into single package so that it can be easily transmitted over the transmission lines because data compression reduces the size of the data packets to be transmitted
TRANSMITTER:- The source generated electrical signals are then used by the transmitter after refining them and removes the noise and distortion there in it and makes signal in form that can be easily amplified, for the purpose of amplification in transmitter circuit we uses the digital modulator that converts sequence into electrical signals so that it can be easily transmitted over long distance. For example- In the wire telephony system. The modulation is used for the enhancement of the signal strength without the loss of the original data because using the ordinary antenna’s it is not possible to reduce the noise and distortion during transmission of data signal.
COMMUNICATION CHANNEL:- The physical medium which is used for the transmission of communication data signals from sender to receiver is referred as communication channel and we can also say that it is the platform that allows the sending and receiving of the data packets using the well-established path between two machines that can either be wire oriented or wireless such that both types of connections are supported by the point to point and broadcast channel, the various communication channels are used in it for the data transmission that depends on the type of the network topology and circuit which we are using. Instead of this, the optical media is the best communication channel that provides fast and safe data transmission because tracing of the signals in it is impossible.
RECEIVER:- The receiver machine work is to reproduce the message signal in electrical form from the noised and distorted signal such that digital demodulator is used that process the waveform signals into the sequence of numbers that represents the discrete values which is in form of zeroes and ones and then these discrete signals are used for the reconstruction of information code from the attenuated signal.
DESTINATION MACHINE:- The last stage of the communication system is destination machine which converts these electrical signals into its original form for the data broadcasting so that it can be easily understand by the end user or receiver and then this same sort of communication process is used for the acknowledgment of signals to sender machine.
ASSEMBLER:-An assembler is a program that takes basic computer instructions and converts them into a pattern of bits that the computer’s processor can use to perform its basic operations. Some people call these instructions assembler language and others use the term assembly language. In the earliest computers, programmers actually wrote programs in machine code, but assembler languages or instruction sets were soon developed to speed up programming. Today, assembler programming is used only where very efficient control over processor operations is needed. It requires knowledge of a particular computer’s instruction set, however. Historically, most programs have been written in “higher-level” languages such as COBOL, FORTRAN, PUI, and C. These languages are easier to learn and faster to write programs with than assembler language. The program that processes the source code written in these languages is called a compiler. Like the assembler, a compiler takes higher-level language statements and reduces them to machine code.
COMPILER:- A compiler is a computer program (or set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code). The most common reason for wanting to transform source code is to create an executable program. The name “compiler” is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower level language (e.g., assembly or machine code). If the compiled program can run on a computer whose CPU or operating system is different from the one on which the compiler runs, the compiler is known as a cross-compiler. A program that translates from a low level language to a higher level one is a decompiler. A program that translates between high-level languages is usually called a language translator, source to source translator, or language converter. A language rewriter is usually a program that translates the form of expressions without a change of language. A compiler is likely to perform many or all of the following operations: lexical analysis, pre processing, parsing, semantic analysis (Syntax-directed translation), code generation and code optimization. Program faults caused by incorrect compiler behavior can be very difficult to track down and work around; therefore, compiler implementers invest significant effort to ensure compiler correctness. The term compiler-compiler is sometimes used to refer to a parser generator, a tool often used to help create the lexcr and moer.
LINKER:- In computer science, a linker or link editor is a computer program that takes one or more object files generated by a compiler and combines them into a single executable program. A simpler version that wrote its output directly to memory was called the loader, though loading is typically considered a separate process Computer programs typically comprise several parts or modules; these pans/modules need not all be contained within a single object file, and in such case refer to each other by means of symbols. Typically, an object file can contain three kinds of symbols:
• Defined symbols, which allow it to be called by other modules,
• Undefined symbols, which call the other modules where these symbols are defined, and
• Local symbols, used internally within the object file to facilitate relocation.

For most compilers, each object file is the result of compiling one input source code file. When a program comprises multiple object files, the linker combines these files into a unified executable program, resolving the symbols as it goes along. Linkers can take objects from a collection called a library. Some linkers do not include the whole library in the output; they only include its symbols that are referenced from other object files or libraries. Libraries exist for diverse purposes, and one or more system libraries are usually linked in by default. Interpreter:-In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without previously compiling them into a machine language program. An interpreter generally uses one of the following strategies for program execution:
• Parse the source code and perform its behavior directly
• Translate source code into some efficient representation and immediately execute this
• Explicitly execute stored precompiled code made by a compiler which is part of the interpreter system

Early versions of the Lisp programming language and Dartmouth BASIC would be examples of the first type. Perl, Python, MATLAB, and Ruby are examples of the second, while UCSD Pascal is an example of the third type. Source programs are compiled ahead of time and stored as machine independent code, which is then linked at run-time and executed by an interpreter and/or compiler (for JIT systems). Some systems, such as Smalltalk, contemporary versions of BASIC Java and others may also combine two and three.


Answer:-Concept of multimedia:-Multimedia refers to content that uses a combination of different content forms. This contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video or interactivity content forms.
Multimedia is usually recorded and played, displayed, or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can also be part of a live performance. Multimedia devices are media devices used to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine an; by including audio, for example, it has a broader scope. The term “rich media” is synonymous for multimedia. Hypermedia can be considered one particular multimedia application. Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories. Linear active content progresses often without any navigational control for the viewer such as a cinema presentation. Non-linear uses interactivity to control progress as with a video game or self-paced computer based training. Hypermedia is an example of non-linear content.
Multimedia presentations can be live or recorded. A recorded presentation may allow interactivity via a navigation system. A live multimedia presentation may allow interactivity via an interaction with the presenter or performer.
Presentations may be viewed by person on stage projected, transmitted, or played locally with a media player. A broadcast may be a live or recorded multimedia presentation. Broadcasts and recordings can be either analog or digital electronic media technology. Digital online multimedia may be downloaded or streamed. Streaming multimedia may be live or on-demand.
Multimedia games and simulations may be used in a physical environment with special effects, with multiple users in an online network, or locally with an offline computer, game system, or simulator. The various formats of technological or digital multimedia may be intended to enhance the users’ experience, for example to make it easier and faster to convey information. Or in entertainment or art, to transcend everyday experience
Enhanced levels of interactivity are made possible by combining multiple forms of media content. Online multimedia is increasingly becoming object-oriented and data-driven, enabling applications with collaborative end-user innovation and personalization on multiple forms of content over time. Examples of these range from multiple forms of content on Web sites like photo galleries with both images (pictures) and title (text) user-updated, to simulations whose co-efficient, events, illustrations, animations or videos are modifiable, allowing the multimedia “experience” to be altered without reprogramming. In addition to seeing and hearing, Hantic technology enables virtual objects to be felt. Emerging technology involving illusions of taste and smell may also enhance the multimedia experience.
EXAMPLES OF MULTIMEDIA: Advances in technology including increased disk storage capacity, greater bandwidth capacities, improved resolution of capture devices and the increasing processing power of CPUs have influenced the development of multimedia systems.
Increased disk storage capacity as well as advanced cod= for compressing data have enabled the creation of high quality interactive multimedia products that can be stored with ease.
The speed and capacity of Internet connections have allowed large organizations, for example, to use online multimedia tutorials for computer based training (CBT). Home users interact with a multimedia websites for education purposes but more and more people now regard the net as a source of multimedia leisure and entertainment – online games, for example. Even traditional information providers such as newspapers and magazines are now creating Web-specific multimedia content.
The increased use of DVDs over the past few years has brought about a significant change in the way we look at multimedia. Not only do we see a video as it was meant to be, but we can also interact with DVDs and have more control of the content that is displayed.
The ever increasing speed and power of CPUs has had a tremendous influence on the ability of computers to create and display multimedia. High quality musical and video programs can be easily handled by modem CPUs, with the added benefit of being able to jump to any point in a program instantaneously.
In an educational multimedia system, the participants arc the students and the teachers. The use of multimedia in this context is to inform and educate. Two major requirements of educational multimedia packages are good navigational options and a sufficient breadth and depth of information. The keyboard (for keyword searches) and the mouse (with hypermedia links) are usually used for navigation. The system will most probable to have all or most of the data types (text, hypertext, numbers, audio, images, animations and video) along with different hardware and software devices. Text is the most common data type.
The participants in this type of system will be ranging from a variety of people from all ages. Often, their knowledge and skill about information technology are relatively low. The most common form of leisure and entertainment multimedia is the interactive computer game. The games are typically stored on CD-ROM (and increasingly on DVD) due to the amount of data and have. The average gamer (player) is only keen in audio. Hypermedia, video and animated data types. User interaction with the system will most likely be through a mouse, trackball, or joystick. The keyboard is rarely used. In multimedia design for leisure and entertainment, it is important to note that it includes features such as fast action and allows the ability of the user to explore and discovery. A wide range of multimedia technology (high resolution VDU, audio speakers, CD/DVD drive, etc.) is likely to be present. The Internet are now widely used as a source to locate support devices and software for their system or leisure activities. These can be sharing MP3 files, downloading embroidery patterns, etc. These activities, however, have generated controversy over copyright issues.
This type of multimedia is usually aimed at quickly providing very basic information. The participants for this system are similar to leisure and entertainment systems. Their information technology skills are frequently low as well as in leisure and entertainment. The users in this system only have an objective of locating and displaying information for a specified topic. Examples would include information kiosks in tourist centers, interactive directories in retail stores and shopping centers, and catalogue systems in libraries. The navigation options will often be simple with little depth. With an information kiosk, the interactive devices will usually be touch-sensitive screens or a trackball built into the system case. The publicity in the context of this system means that the use of keyboard or mouse is unlikely, due to no supervision. Because they are likely to be in the noisy environment of a shopping Centre or near a busy street, audio may not be part of the presentation.
Simulation and VR systems are designed to duplicate real situations. These systems are used among the most sophisticated and expensive of computer-based systems. The purpose of a simulation is usually to create a situation with sufficient authenticity and realism that user can gain valuable training and experience from using the system. VR systems conducts this as a more developed simulation where the users are convinced that they are part of a real situation. The users are often specialists (ignoring entertainment-based systems) using the technology to further their knowledge and/or training. For example, the inside of a flight simulator will resemble a real aircraft cockpit and not a computer terminal. VR systems can be used to design new drugs and chemical products. In simulating the movement of atoms and molecules, motion or position sensitive gloves are used. A 3D video headset allows researchers to see these simulated reactions and chemical structures. The making of these systems are expensive because of the degree of realism they require. A flight simulator for a modern commercial passenger jet will cost millions of dollars.
CHANGES CAUSED BY TECHNOLOGY WORLD WIDE WEB:- The World Wide Web has entered, adapted, advanced so quickly in the society. It was the first widely available hypertext system that could be used by people with totally different computer systems. The original standard (HTML I) allowed only text, numbers and hypertext. Later standards (I-ITML 2 and above) incorporated graphics, then audio, and video. Many claim that the Internet would stay unknown if the Web was not introduced. As a direct result, terms such as ‘e-commerce’, ‘e-mail’, ‘Internet’ and ‘search engine’ became a part of the colloquial language. Almost everyone today now knows about the Web, even though there are still some who don’t understand it. A web address is now an important item on all advertising, business cards and letterheads. The increasing popularity of the Web and the Internet have made way for developments of new technologies such as faster modems (56 kbps) modems, ISDN and ADSL links for delivering data between computer systems.
The original CD-ROM standard was single speed and was designed to match the speed of audio CDs at 150 kbps. While this was (and still is) ideal for high quality music, single speed CD-ROMs were generally too slow for multimedia applications involving video or large animations (such as games). The original video storage standard, MPEG, was designed to allow digitised videos to be played directly from single speed CD-ROMs but the quality of the video images had to be reduced. Most CD-ROMs were used to install a multimedia application such as a game onto a hard disk drive. With faster CD-ROM drive speeds, better quality video is possible — we now have high quality movies on CD-ROM systems. However, increasing the CD-ROM speed is not a solution to all multimedia problems.
Originally, DVD stood for ‘Digital Video Disc’ but it has been changed to ‘Digital Versatile Disc’ as it better describes the capabilities of this storage device. DVDs used to be commonly used for movies or videos. VHS or videocassettes were replaced by DVDs. The enormous storage capacity of a DVD means that it can store an entire movie, with extra scene and other materials added, and give viewers a choice of sound tracks in several different languages. Nonetheless, a DVD is capable in displaying more than just movies. DVD technologies can be used as encyclopedias, interactive games, complete training systems, complex simulations, etc. Current DVD technology allows up to 17 gigabytes of data to be stored in a single disc, whereas, CD-ROMs are limited to only 650 megabytes.



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