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Aiou solved assignment 1 code 1431 for the semester autumn 2016 Basic of ICT (information and communication Technology). This is solved assignment # 1 of computer course code 1431 for the semester autumn 2016.


Answer:- Computer:- A computer is an electronic machine, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept data, manipulate the data according to specified rules, produce results, and store the results for future use. Computers process data to create information. Data is a collection of raw unprocessed facts, figures, and symbols. Information is data that is organized, meaningful, and useful. To process data into information, a computer uses hardware and software. Hardware is the electric, electronic, and mechanical equipment that makes up a computer. Software is the series of instructions that tells the hardware how to perform tasks. Technically, a computer is a programmable machine. This means it can execute a programmed list of instructions and respond to new instructions that it is given. Today, however, the term is most often used to refer to the desktop and laptop computers that most people use. When referring to a desktop model, the term “computer” technically only refers to the computer itself — not the monitor, keyboard, and mouse. Still, it is acceptable to refer to everything together as the computer. If you want to be really technical, the box that holds the computer is called the “system unit.” Some of the major parts of a personal computer (or PC) include the motherboard, CPU, memory (or RAM), hard drive, and video card. While personal computers are by far the most common type of computers today, there are several other types of computers. For example, a “minicomputer” is a powerful computer that can support many users at once. A “mainframe” is a large, high-powered computer that can perform billions of calculations from multiple sources at one time. Finally, a “supercomputer” is a machine that can process billions of instructions a second and is used to calculate extremely complex calculations.
The main types of computer are supercomputers, mainframes, personal computers, laptops, net books, tablets and smart phones. Each has different purposes and capabilities. Supercomputers have huge data storage capacities and unrivaled processing power. They are used by large organizations that require immense computing power. These computers are exceptionally expensive and very delicate. Housed in clean rooms, supercomputers must be kept free of dust and debris, and have to be constantly cooled because of the heat they generate. Mainframe computers have considerably less power and capacity than supercomputers, but significantly more than personal computers. They are capable of processing billions of instructions per second and handle vast quantities of data simultaneously. Personal computers are common in homes and offices throughout the world. Modern models have large storage capacities and run multiple applications simultaneously. Modern laptops feature similar specification to desktop computers, with the added bonus of being portable. However, laptops can feel heavy and battery life can be an issue if needing to work for long periods without being able to recharge. Netbooks are smaller and lighter than laptops, but have considerably less storage capacity and power. However, their small size and minimal weight makes them attractive for browsing the web, checking emails and creating documents when not in the office. Tablets and smartphones are similar in nature and operate on a touchscreen basis. They are user-friendly, lightweight and very convenient, being popular with people of all ages and backgrounds. Applications of the computer Most of the beginners confused about types of Computer Applications and It is not easy to divide computer applications into any exact categories. At present there is no clear definition available to categorize computer applications. Even though here is a small list of different types of computer applications.
1. Embedded Systems
2. Windows applications (also called ‘Desktop applications’)
3. Web Applications
4. Web Services
5. Console applications

When we save a name, address and other information in to our Mobile Phone or Digital Diary, You know how it gets saved in it? Nothing but which is a small computer program ‘Embedded’ into a chip in the device inside the mobile phone or digital diary known as Embedded Systems.

Windows Applications is a form based standard Windows, Microsoft word; Paint is example to the Windows application, and also called ‘Desktop applications’.

A web site is also called ‘web Applications’. A web applications is a collection of web pages hosted on a special computer called ‘web server’. Web server can be located anywhere and visitors can be located anywhere it will work through Browsers (EG. Internet Explorer, Mozilla, Netscape).

Web services are web applications that give services to other applications through the internet, example Google search engine, Yahoo Search engine etc. which allows other applications to delegate the task of searching over the internet. Console Applications: Console applications runs inside the command prompt i.e. DOS window, It is a light weight program and which is used commonly for test applications.


1) A point and draw device of a computer includes: a X axis and Y — axis driving gear system respectively mounted in a housing and generally orienting perpendicularly with each other, and a driving plate for driving the two gear systems slid ably held in the housing having an actuating portion protruding upwardly from the driving plate through a top window formed in an upper cover of the housing, whereby upon coordinative moving of the driving plate to move the X-axis or Y-axis driving gear system, a movement pulse signal can be electronically sensed for encoding the pulse signals into the computer to be decoded and red for moving a cursor on a CRT screen of the computer corresponding to the movement of the driving plate in the housing for an effective, reliable and ergonomic manipulation of the point and draw device.
As of today, mouse is the most popular point and draw device. It has become a must have input device on personal computer and work stations, which have a GUI-based user interface it is a small hand held device, which can comfortably fit in a user’s palm. Since all movements of the mouse are reproduced by the graphics cursor on the screen, you can move the graphics cursor at a menu item or an icon by moving the mouse. With the proper software, a mouse can also be used to draw pictures on the screen and edit text. Another point and draw device is an electronic pen. In a pen based system, you hold the pen in your hand and directly point with it on the screen to select menu items or icons, or directly draw graphics on the screen with it, or can write a special pad.
The most common input devices are by far and keyboard and the mouse, which is a point and draw device. Most of our interaction with a computer is performed using one of these or a combination of the two. However there are many kinds of input devices that serve special needs.
There are several kinds of point and draw devices. The most notable is the mouse. Others include the following.
O Joystick
0 Trackball
O Mouse pen
O Digitizer tablet and pen
0 Track points

Hard Disk A Hard Disk Drive (HDD), or sometimes just hard disk or hard drive, uses physical platters coated with magnetic material to store data. As the disk spins underneath read/write heads, the changes in magnetic polarization can be read by the read head, or they can be set or written by the write head. A hard disk is a physical device that typically resides in your computer, although it’s very common to have external hard drives connected to your machine using USB or Fire wire.
There are two things that distinguish hard drives from other forms of storage: A traditional hard drive involves moving parts. The platters spin at speeds measured in thousands of revolutions per minute and the read/write head moves back and forth across the spinning platters. Because magnetic and not electronic components are used for storage, a hard drive retains its contents even when the power is removed.
Computers come with a hard disk on which the operating system and initial set of programs are installed. This is where you’ll save your work. You can replace the hard disk with a larger one, taking care to move the data from the old hard disk to the new. You can also add additional hard disks either internally, if your computer has room, or externally, through USB and similar interfaces. Technically, there’s no limit to how much hard disk space most computers can have, but practically, the sheer number of drives, connections and power required for more drives limits the amount of space you can add.
The machine that I’m working on now came with a 300-gigabyte drive. It has since been upgraded to include a one terabyte (one trillion bytes) drive, a 1.5 terabyte drive internally and a 500-gigabyte drive attached via a USB connection. The hard disk sometimes called the “hard drive” (which is actually the mechanism that holds the hard disk), is a spindle of magnetic discs that can hold several gigabytes of data. Therefore, disk space refers to how much space you have available on your hard disk for storing files. When you save a document or install a new program, it gets stored on your hard disk. The more files you download, install or save on your hard disk, the more full it becomes.
Memory, on the other hand, is not the same as disk space! Memory refers to the random access memory (RAM) inside your computer. RAM consists of small chips also known as memory modules. Your computer uses memory (RAM) to store actively running programs on the computer, including the operating system. For example, the operating system’s interface and other processes get loaded into memory when the computer boots up. When you open a program like Microsoft Word, it gets loaded into the computer’s memory as well. When you quit the program, the memory is freed up for use by other programs. Like a hard drive, computer memory is usually measured in either Megabytes (MB) or Gigabytes (GB.) Memory is often referred to as RAM, which stands for Random Access Memory. Memory is used by computer programs to temporarily store data and every time you turn off your computer, anything stored on the Memory is deleted. For example, if you are playing a computer game, the level you are on might be stored in memory. The reason computers use Memory to temporarily store data instead of the hard drive is because it can be accessed much quicker than the hard drive can, but most operating systems also use hard drive space like memory as well. “Memory” is RAM. It’s that simple. Normally, the term memory refers only to RAM, not your hard disk. It’s this confusion that I see frequently. A statement like, “I just added 500 gigabytes of memory to my machine,” is unlikely to be true. You might have added 500 gigabytes of hard disk space, but at this writing, 500 gigabytes of RAM is well beyond the reach of any consumer PCs, which tend to max out in the eight, 16 or maybe 32 gigabyte range.


Information and communications technology is the study, development and application of computer-based information systems using telephones, televisions, radios, mobiles, computers and computer software to convert, store, process, protect and transmit information. Information and communications technology (ICT) is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT), but is a more specific term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.
The phrase ICT had been used by academic researchers since the 1980s, but it became popular after it was used in a report to the UK government by Dennis Stevenson in 1997 and in the revised National Curriculum for England, Wales and Northern Ireland in 2000. As of September 2013, the term “ICT” in the UK National Curriculum has been replaced by the broader term “computing”.

The term ICT is now also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives (huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network) to merge the telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution and management. The key features of information and communication technology are speed and capacity. You can now access a vast wealth of information speedily from anywhere in the world using search engines. There is greater capacity to store and process data including text, sounds and images with computers ICT can affect in the spread of education and to enable greater access to it. Moreover, they increase flexibility so that students can access educational resources regardless of time and geographical barriers. They can affect the way that students are given instruction and how they learn. They enable collaborative development of skills and abilities to create knowledge. This as a result will bring a better preparation for students, lifelong learning and the opportunity to join industry. ICT can improve the quality of learning and contribute to the overall economy. “Information and Communication Technology considered the most powerful means of education in this century. This is as true that today opened a debate that if has changed the classical meaning of education. If not entirely, at least the conception of education, as a process, that cannot be limited to the classical form of knowledge, and its transmission within the classical institutions”, from ( All these continuous transformations brought by the digital era justify the need to include technology in the education sector in Albania.

Below, we are citing some of the advantages that flow from the use of ICT in education: “Eliminates barriers to education for students and for teachers” (Sanyal et., 2001), (Mooij et al., 2007), (Cross et al., 2007), (UNESCO, 2002), (Bhattacharya,. 2007); “Eliminates geographic barriers for students to be able to access knowledge resources from any location” (Sanyal et., 2001), (Mooij et al., 2007), (Cross et al., 2007), (UNESCO, 2002), (Bhattacharya,. 2007); “Allows use of new methods of education” (Sanyal et., 2001); “Provides a balanced combination of work and family life education” (UNESCO, 2002), (Bhattacharya,. 2007); “Increase the international dimension of education services” (UNESCO, 2002); “Allows education in the appropriate time and amount for employees of Organizations” (UNESCO, 2002) ;”ICT can also be used for non-formal education such as health campaigns and campaigns for illiteracy” (UNESCO, 2002) . ‘.ether (Barolli et al., 2009) notes: “How much access student? Have today and how use ICT, how could improve the process of teaching and learning and within the academic sphere through it, are today key problems. Realization of process of teaching and learning through ICT can be achieved inter alia through a series of factors as: The necessary infrastructure related to ICT together with relevant technologies. Preparation accompanied training of human recourses that will work, with this technology and supported in this infrastructure.” During their studies (Bates et al., 2000) cite: “offers four levels of supporting the human resources required to fully exploit the use of ICTs: infrastructure support staff of technology (technical support – installs, manages, updates and maintains networks and devices) technologies for support staff education (staff that supports the development and implementation of programs and educational materials using technology), design of teaching staff (staff that provides services and educational expertise such as the design of instruction, professional development, project management, support for the use of technology for teaching), and subject experts (those who create content, such as academic staff).”

We also noticed some others as: Interaction with people in the process of world globalization; contribution in the field of information; overhaul of the classic model of giving information; exchange of ideas; learning exchange of ideas; recycling of time; formal learning; learning with measurement; collaboration; activation of attention; commitment; materialization efficiency; there will be not enable that student to work less, but will engage pupils to do with more work. Different experiences have shown that investment in ICT for education sector contributes to the growth of knowledge and human capital, which provides many benefits for stakeholders.

Information and communication technology has created new jobs and employment opportunities for systems analysts, computer programmers and web designers to mention just a few. This has enabled those employed in the information and communication technological sector to make a living through the revenues they receive.

Without discussing more advantages of ICT, that they are without counting on the delivery of a range of benefits, again there are some risks of using ICT in education which should be alleviated through appropriate mechanisms, as cited from authors 111) that are part of this study.

Below we list some disadvantages of using ICT in education: “ICT can create a partition, digital gap within the classroom, where students are more familiar with ICT and will have more benefits, will learn faster than others un familiar to technology; Can remove the attention from the main goal of the learning process to develop ICT skills, which may be a secondary goal in this process; May affect the connection process between teacher and student, as ICT become a communication tool instead of face to face communication, so the distance of the transaction will increase; Also since not all teachers are ICT experts, they may be negligent in updating the content of courses, which can slow down the process of learning to students”. But we mention and for: “Also there is a need for training related to ICT by all stakeholders; Cost of hardware’s and software can be high; Exit from the concrete life and spread of virtual life; Feeling of filling that gap and loneliness; Informative learning; Individual learning; Individualism”.

Information and communication technology has led to job redundancies for many through its steady and progressive inventions as those operating with older technology have found themselves without a secured market as clientele move on to new technology. Information and communication technology has also provided access to damaging information through various websites that host destructive and immoral content.




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